New perspectives on CKD-induced dyslipidemia
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Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a world-wide health concern associated with a significantly higher cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One of the principal cardiovascular risk factors is the lipid profile. CKD patients have a more frequent and progressive atheromatous disease that cannot be explained by the classical lipid parameters used in the daily clinical practice. Areas covered: The current review summarizes prevailing knowledge on the role of lipids in atheromathosis in CKD patients, including an overview of lipoprotein metabolism highlighting the CKD-induced alterations. Moreover, to obtain information beyond traditional lipid parameters, new state-of-the-art technologies such as lipoprotein subfraction profiling and lipidomics are also reviewed. Finally, we analyse the potential of new lipoprotein subclasses as therapeutic targets in CKD. Expert opinion: The CKD-induced lipid profile has specific features distinct from the general population. Besides quantitative alterations, renal patients have a plethora of qualitative lipid alterations that cannot be detected by routine determinations and are responsible for the excess of cardiovascular risk. New parameters, such as lipoprotein particle number and size, together with new biomarkers obtained by lipidomics will personalize the management of these patients. Therefore, nephrologists need to be aware of new insights into lipoprotein metabolism to improve cardiovascular risk assessment.