- ItemEmbargoEnhanced detoxification via Cyt-P450 governs cross-tolerance to ALS-inhibiting herbicides in weed species of Centaurea(Elsevier, 2023) Palma-Bautista, Candelario; Vázquez-García, José G.; Portugal, Joao de; Bastida, Fernando; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Osuna-Ruiz, Maria D.; Torra Farré, Joel; Prado, RafaelCentaurea is a genus of winter weeds with a similar life cycle and competitive traits, which occurs in small-grains production fields in the central-southern of the Iberian Peninsula. However, most of herbicides recommended for weed management in wheat show poor control of Centaurea species. This study summarizes the biology, herbicide tolerance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors, and recommended chemical alternatives for the control of Centaurea species. Four species (C. cyanus L., C. diluta Aiton, C. melitensis L. and C. pullata L. subsp. baetica Talavera), taxonomically characterized, were found as the main important broadleaf weeds in small-grains production fields of the Iberian Peninsula. These species showed innate tolerance to tribenuron-methyl (TM), showing LD50 values (mortality of 50% of a population) higher than the field dose of TM (20 g ai ha−1). The order of tolerance was C. diluta (LD50 = 702 g ha−1) ≫ C. pullata (LD50 = 180 g ha−1) ≫ C. cyanus (LD50 = 65 g ha−1) > C. melitensis (LD50 = 32 g ha−1). Centaurea cyanus and C. melitensis presented higher foliar retention (150–180 μL herbicide solution), absorption (14–28%) and subsequent translocation (7–12%) of TM with respect to the other two species. Centaurea spp. plants were able to metabolize 14C-TM into non-toxic forms (hydroxylated OH-metsulfuron-methyl and conjugated-metsulfuron-methyl), with cytochrome P450 (Cyt-P450) monooxygenases being responsible for herbicide detoxification. Centaurea cyanus and C. mellitensis metabolized up to 25% of TM, while C. diluta and C. pullata metabolized more than 50% of the herbicide. Centaurea species showed 80–100% survival when treated with of florasulam, imazamox and/or metsulfuron-methyl, i.e., these weeds present cross-tolerance to ALS inhibitors. In contrast, auxin mimics herbicides (2,4-D, clopyralid, dicamba, fluroxypir and MCPA) efficiently controlled the four Centaurea species. In addition, the mixture of ALS-inhibitors and auxin mimics also proved to be an interesting alternative for the control of Centaurea. These results show that plants of the genus Centaurea found in the winter cereal fields of the Iberian Peninsula have an innate tolerance to TM and cross-resistance to other ALS-inhibiting herbicides, governed by reduced absorption and translocation, but mainly by the metabolization of the herbicide via Cyt-P450.
- ItemOpen AccessAphid suppression by natural enemies in hedgerows surrounding greenhouses in southern Spain(Elsevier, 2023) Rodríguez, Estefanía; Clemente Orta, Gemma María; Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Gutiérrez , Irene; Blom, Jan van derSouthern Spain is home to the most intensively grown protected crop area in the EU. The area is currently characterized by greenhouse monocultures and a homogenous landscape. The establishment of hedgerows among greenhouses can enhance the diversity of natural enemies of pests around the greenhouses and help them thrive. However, the effect of hedgerows on pest control has not been addressed. Thus, we used aphid banker plants, i.e. wheat infested with Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), as sentinel plants in the surroundings of three paired greenhouses with and without hedgerows. We assessed the effect of hedgerows on the abundance of aphids and arthropod community populations. In addition, we assessed the importance of the surrounding environment on aphid survival. There were 4.1-fold more aphids on sentinel plants excluded from the action of natural enemies than ones exposed to them, showing that biological control occurs naturally even in a simplified greenhouse agrosystem. Aphid populations were slightly higher (albeit not significantly) in replicates without hedgerows than in those with hedgerows. The percentage of greenhouses, rather than hedgerows, was an essential factor in suppressing aphids, highlighting the importance of using commercial biological control in greenhouses. The presence of hedgerows resulted in changes in arthropod composition populations, i.e. in a lower occurrence of pests and a higher occurrence of natural enemies, especially in the most simplified replicate. We propose increasing the amount of hedgerows for reducing pressure from pests on simplified greenhouse agrosystems.
- ItemEmbargoPhylogeography and climate shape the quantitative genetic landscape and range-wide plasticity of a prevalent conifer(Ecological Society of America, 2023) Voltas Velasco, Jordi; Amigó, Ramon; Shestakova, Tatiana A.; Matteo, Giovanni; Díaz, Raquel; Zas, RafaelThe contribution of genetic adaptation and plasticity to intraspecific phenotypic variability remains insufficiently studied in long-lived plants, as well as the relevance of neutral versusadaptive processes determining such divergence. We examined the importance of phylogeographic structure and climate modulating genetic and plastic changes and their interdependence in fitness-related traits of a widespread Mediterranean conifer(Pinus pinaster). Four marker-based, previously defined neutral classifications along with two ad hoc climate-based categorizations of 123 range-wide populations were analyzed for their capacity to summarize genetic and plastic effects of height growth and survival (age 20) in 15 common gardens. Plasticity of tree height and differential survival were interpreted through mixed modeling accounting for heteroscedasticity in the genotype-by-environment dataset. The analysis revealed a slight superiority of phylogeographic classifications over climate categorizations on the explanation of genetic and plastic effects, which suggests that neutral processes can be at least as important as isolation by climate as driving factor of evolutionary divergence in a prevalent pine. The best phylogeographic classification involved eight geographically discrete genetic groups which explained 92% (height) and 52% (survival) of phenotypic variability, including between-group mean differentiation and differential expression across trials. For height growth, there was predictability of plastic group responses described by different reaction norm slopes, which were unrelated to between-group mean differentiation. The latter differences (amounting to ca. 40% among groups) dominated intraspecific performance across trials. Local adaptation was evident for genetic groups tested in their native environments in terms of tree height and, especially, survival. This finding was supported by QST > FST estimates. Additionally, our range-wide evaluation did not support a general adaptive syndrome by which less reactive groups to ameliorated conditions would be associated with high survival and low growth. In fact, a lack of relationship between mean group differentiation, indicative of genetic adaptation, and predictable group plasticity for height growth suggests different evolutionary trajectories of these mechanisms of phenotypic divergence. Altogether, the existence of predictable adaptive-trait phenotypic variation for the species, involving both genetic differentiation and plastic effects, should facilitate integrating genomics and environment into decision-making tools to assist forests to cope with climate change.
- ItemOpen AccessProtein turnover in pigs: A review of interacting factors(Wiley, 2023-11-17) Sarri Espinosa, Laura; Balcells Terés, Joaquim; Seradj, Ahmad Reza; de la Fuente Oliver, GabrielProtein turnover defines the balance between two continuous and complex processes of protein metabolism, synthesis and degradation, which determine their deposition in tissues. Although the liver and intestine have been studied extensively for their important roles in protein digestion, absorption and metabolism, the study of protein metabolism has focused mainly on skeletal muscle tissue to understand the basis for its growth. Due to the high adaptability of skeletal muscle, its protein turnover is greatly affected by different internal and external factors, contributing to carcass lean‐yield and animal growth. Amino acid (AA) labelling and tracking using isotope tracer methodology, together with the study of myofiber type profiling, signal transduction pathways and gene expression, has allowed the analysis of these mechanisms from different perspectives. Positive stimuli such as increased nutrient availability in the diet (e.g., AA), physical activity, the presence of certain hormones (e.g., testosterone) or a more oxidative myofiber profile in certain muscles or pig genotypes promote increased upregulation of translation and transcription‐related genes, activation of mTORC1 signalling mechanisms and increased abundance of satellite cells, allowing for more efficient protein synthesis. However, fasting, animal aging, inactivity and stress, inflammation or sepsis produce the opposite effect. Deepening the understanding of modifying factors and their possible interaction may contribute to the design of optimal strategies to better control tissue growth and nutrient use (i.e., protein and AA), and thus advance the precision feeding strategy.
- ItemOpen AccessPlant–soil feedbacks among boreal forest species(John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2023) Štraus, Dora; Redondo, Miguel Ángel; Castaño, Carles; Juhanson, Jaanis c; Clemmensen, Karina E.; Hallin, Sara; Oliva Palau, JonàsPlant–microbial interactions in soils are considered to play a central role in regulating biodiversity in many global ecosystems. However, studies on plant–soil feedbacks (PSFs) and how these affect forest stand patterns in boreal regions are rare. We conducted a fully reciprocal PSF glasshouse experiment using four boreal tree species. Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula, Picea abies and Pinus sylvestris seedlings were grown under controlled conditions in sterilised soil with or without soil inoculum collected under mature trees of each of the four species. Bacterial, fungal and oomycete communities in the rhizosphere were investigated using metabarcoding and correlated with differences in plant biomass. Alder grew best in conspecific soil, whereas birch grew equally well in all soil types. Pine and spruce grew best in heterospecific soil, particularly in soil from their successional predecessor. Ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF) enhanced the growth of most seedlings, and Actinomycetota supported alder and birch growth and fungal plant pathogens hampered pine growth. Increased growth was linked to the ability of trees to recruit specific EMF and root-associated fungi in heterospecific soils. Synthesis. This study experimentally examines the influence of root-associated microbiota on the growth of boreal tree species. The observed plant–soil feedbacks mirror the successional patterns found in boreal forests, suggesting a possible contribution of soil microbiota to the successional progression. Species-specific ectomycorrhizal fungi and a few bacteria rather than fungal plant pathogens or oomycetes seem to drive the feedbacks by promoting seedling growth in heterospecific soils.