Articles publicats (Ciència Animal)

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    Open Access
    Histophilus somni as a unique causative agent of Puerperal Metritis (PM) in a third-lactation holstein cow
    (MDPI, 2024) Molín, Jéssica; Ainoza, Andrea; Armengol Gelonch, Ramon
    This manuscript aims to report the clinical and laboratory diagnosis of puerperal metritis (PM) in a dairy cow, caused by H. somni as a unique pathogen. The cow showed signs of systemic illness, including a sudden drop in milk production, a rectal temperature of 40.4 °C, tachypnea, dehydration, and completely fluid, brown, and fetid uterine discharge. Pure cultures of H. somni were identified and submitted to the Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion method for antibiotic sensitivity. The study showed that H. somni was resistant to tetracyclines and cephalosporins (Ceftiofur), antibiotics commonly used to treat uterine infections in dairy cows. To the authors’ knowledge, this case describes for the first time PM caused by H. somni as a primary pathogen. Our results should lead to the inclusion of H. somni as a primary pathogen of metritis in laboratory diagnoses on a routine basis, which, in turn, may help to elucidate the incidence of H. somni as a causative agent of uterine infections in cows. If the incidence of H. somni is remarkably high or frequent, researchers could consider the use of commercial vaccines nowadays destined for the prevention of bovine respiratory disease and which could perhaps be effective in the prevention of reproductive pathology caused by H. somni.
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    Open Access
    Why and when do freshwater fish migrate? Observations of migration patterns of the native fishes from the Iberian Peninsula (SW Europe)
    (Asociación Ibérica de Limnología, 2024) Ordeix, Marc; Casals i Martí, Frederic
    We reviewed information on Iberian freshwater fish to characterize their migratory status and identify migration reasons and periods. Most species migrate (87.3 %; 62 species from 15 families). A large number are potamodromous species (45 species from 6 families) but diadromous species (17 species from 11 families) also exist, including anadromous (9 species) and catadromous (8 species). The spawning period is a primary driver of fish migration but feeding and refuge-associated migrations also take place. Sexual maturity is the most important cue triggering fish migration, and other important factors include water temperature, river flow, currents, salinity and photoperiod. Spawning and migrating periods are in general prolonged and vary among years, as a response to the environmental variability of Mediterranean river systems, which are the most frequent in the Iberian Peninsula. Migratory movements of the various native species of each site cover almost the whole or the whole year. Therefore, to allow fish migration, Iberian freshwaters should always be connected, or their fish passes should be permanently, or practically always, in operation.
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    Open Access
    A novel QTL region for pH and meat color in Duroc pigs
    (Wiley, 2024) Molinero, Eduard; Pena i Subirà, Ramona Natacha; Estany Illa, Joan; Ros Freixedes, Roger
    One of the most important processes that occur during the transformation of muscle to meat is the pH decline as a consequence of the post-mortem metabolism of muscle tissue. Abnormal pH declines lead to pork defects such as pale, soft, and exudative meat. There is genetic variance for ultimate pH and the role of some genes on this phenotype is well established. After conducting a genome-wide association study on ultimate pH using 526 purebred Duroc pigs, we identified associated regions on Sus scrofa chromosomes (SSC) 3, 8, and 15. Functional candidate genes in these regions included PRKAG3 and PHKG1. The SSC8 region, at 71.6 Mb, was novel and, although no candidate causative gene could be identified, it may have regulatory effects. Subsequent analysis on 828 pigs from the same population confirmed the impact of the three associated regions on pH and meat color. We detected no interaction between the three regions. Further investigations are necessary to unravel the functional significance of the novel genomic region at SSC8. These variants could be used as markers in marker-assisted selection for improving meat quality.
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    Open Access
    Monkeypox: A Comprehensive Review
    (MDPI, 2022-09-29) Harapan, Harapan; Ophinni, Youdiil; Megawati, Dewi; Frediansyah, Andri; Mamada, Sukamto S; Salampe, Mirnawati; Bin Emran, Talha; Winardi, Wira; Fathima, Raisha; Sirinam, Salin; Sittikul, Pichamon; Stoian, Ana; Nainu, Firzan; Sallam, Malik
    The 2022 multi-country monkeypox outbreak in humans has brought new public health adversity on top of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The disease has spread to 104 countries throughout six continents of the world, with the highest burden in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, monkeypox virus (MPXV), has been known since 1959 after isolation from infected monkeys, and virulence among humans has been reported since the 1970s, mainly in endemic countries in West and Central Africa. However, the disease has re-emerged in 2022 at an unprecedented pace, with particular concern on its human-to-human transmissibility and community spread in non-endemic regions. As a mitigation effort, healthcare workers, public health policymakers, and the general public worldwide need to be well-informed on this relatively neglected viral disease. Here, we provide a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of monkeypox, including the following aspects: epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management. In addition, the current review discusses the preventive and control measures, the latest vaccine developments, and the future research areas in this re-emerging viral disease that was declared as a public health emergency of international concern.
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    Open Access
    SARS-CoV-2 detection and genomic sequencing from hospital surface samples collected at UC Davis
    (Public Library of Science, 2021-06-24) Coil, David A.; Albertson, Timothy; Banerjee, Shefali; Brennan, Greg; Campbell, Alexandra J.; Cohen, Stuart H.; Dandekar, Satya; Díaz-Muñoz, Samuel L.; Eisen, Jonathan A.; Goldstein, Tracey; Jose, Ivy R.; Juarez, Maya; Robinson, Brandt A.; Rothenburg, Stefan; Sandrock, Christian; Stoian, Ana; Tompkins, Daniel G.; Tremeau-Bravard, Alexandre; Haczku, Angela
    Rationale There is little doubt that aerosols play a major role in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. The significance of the presence and infectivity of this virus on environmental surfaces, especially in a hospital setting, remains less clear. Objectives We aimed to analyze surface swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and infectivity, and to determine their suitability for sequence analysis. Methods Samples were collected during two waves of COVID-19 at the University of California, Davis Medical Center, in COVID-19 patient serving and staff congregation areas. qRT-PCR positive samples were investigated in Vero cell cultures for cytopathic effects and phylogenetically assessed by whole genome sequencing. Measurements and main results Improved cleaning and patient management practices between April and August 2020 were associated with a substantial reduction of SARS-CoV-2 qRT-PCR positivity (from 11% to 2%) in hospital surface samples. Even though we recovered near-complete genome sequences in some, none of the positive samples (11 of 224 total) caused cytopathic effects in cultured cells suggesting this nucleic acid was either not associated with intact virions, or they were present in insufficient numbers for infectivity. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 genomes of the positive samples were derived from hospitalized patients. Genomic sequences isolated from qRT-PCR negative samples indicate a superior sensitivity of viral detection by sequencing. Conclusions This study confirms the low likelihood that SARS-CoV-2 contamination on hospital surfaces contains infectious virus, disputing the importance of fomites in COVID-19 transmission. Ours is the first report on recovering near-complete SARS-CoV-2 genome sequences directly from environmental surface swabs.