Publicacions de projectes finançats per la Unió Europea

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Publicacions resultants de les investigacions finançades pel 7è Programa Marc, pel Programa H2020 i l’European Research Council de la Unió Europea, recollides en el Projecte OpenAIRE (Open Access Infraestructure for Research in Europe) que promou l’accés obert a Europa.

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    Open Access
    Biofortification for space farming: Maximising nutrients using lettuce as a model plant
    (Elsevier, 2024) Burgess, Alexandra J.; Pranggono, Raihannah; Escribà i Gelonch, Marc; Hessel, Volker
    Space exploration requires consideration of the dietary requirements of astronauts. Not only do nutritional requirements differ in space versus Earth, but limitations to payload combined with the length of space missions means that astronauts will need to produce as much food as possible in situ. Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) possesses many traits that make it suitable for space farming. Its small size, quick life cycle, large harvestable fraction and previous successful cultivation aboard the International Space Station (ISS) means that it represents a model plant for space cultivation. Here we discuss the suitability and requirements of lettuce as a dietary source on space missions. Using simplex linear programming, we identify the ration sizes of existing lettuce varieties to optimise nutrient delivery to both men and women on Earth and in Space. Whilst, unsurprisingly, a diet consisting only of lettuce cannot provide full nutrient requirements, there are differences in ration size and composition depending upon gender and location, indicating the importance of group composition when designing farming systems. We then review different routes to the biofortification of lettuce based on current literature and perform the modelling approach to determine portion sizes of theoretical ‘maximally fortified lettuce’, whose nutritional content was predicted based on the combined biofortification strategies. Finally, we conclude with the application of these approaches towards future space farming of a variety of crop species.
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    Open Access
    Development of a bio-inspired TES tank for heat transfer enhancement in latent heat thermal energy storage systems
    (MDPI, 2024) Cabeza, Luisa F.; Mani Kala, Saranprabhu; Zsembinszki, Gabriel; Vérez, David; Risco Amigó, Santiago; Borri, Emiliano
    Thermal energy storage (TES) systems play a very important part in addressing the energy crisis. Therefore, numerous researchers are striving to improve the efficiency of TES tanks. The TES technology has the potential to reach new heights when the biological behavior of nature is incorporated into the design of TES tanks. By mimicking the branched vein pattern observed in plants and animals, the heat transfer fluid (HTF) tube of a TES tank can enhance the heat transfer surface area, hence improving its thermal efficiency without the need to add other enhancements of heat transfer methods. Accordingly, in this study, a unique additive-manufacturing-based bio-inspired TES tank was designed, developed, and tested. A customized testing setup was used to assess the bio-inspired TES tank's thermal performance. A comparison was made between the bio-inspired TES tank and a conventional shell-and-tube TES tank. The latent TES system's thermal performance was significantly enhanced by the biomimetic approach for the design of a TES tank, even before the optimization of its design. The results showed that, compared to the shell-and-tube TES tank, the bio-inspired TES tank had a higher discharging rate and needed 52% less time to release the stored heat.
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    Open Access
    Current and future glyphosate use in European agriculture
    (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2024) Neve, Paul; Matzrafi, Maor; Ulber, Lena; Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara; Beffa, Roland; Belvaux, Xavier; Torra Farré, Joel; Mennan, Huesrev; Ringselle, Bjoern; Salonen, Jukka; Soukup, Josef; Andert, Sabine; Duecker, Rebecka; Gonzalez, Emilio; Hamouzova, Katerina; Karpinski, Isabella; Travlos, Ilias S.; Vidotto, Francesc; Kudsk, Per
    There has been a longstanding and contentious debate about the future of glyphosate use in the European Union (EU). In November 2023, the European Commission approved the renewal of the use registration for glyphosate for a further 10 years. Nevertheless, the EU Farm to Fork strategy calls for a 50% reduction in pesticide use by 2030. In November 2022, the European Weed Research Society organised a 2 day workshop to identify critical glyphosate uses in current EU cropping systems and to review the availability of glyphosate alternatives. Workshop participants identified four current, critical uses in EU cropping systems; control and management of perennial weeds, weed control in conservation agriculture, vegetation management in tree and vine crops and herbicide resistance management. There are few herbicide alternatives that provide effective, economic, broad-spectrum control of weeds, particularly perennial weeds. Mechanical weed control, and in particular, soil cultivation is the most obvious glyphosate alternative. However, this is not possible in conservation agriculture systems and, in general, increased soil cultivation has negative impacts for soil health. Emerging technologies for precision weed control can enable more targeted use of glyphosate, greatly reducing use rates. These technologies also facilitate the use and development of alternative targeted physical weed control (e.g. tillage, lasers, electricity), reducing the energy and environmental costs of these approaches. In tree crops, the use of organic and inorganic mulches can reduce the need for glyphosate use. In general, reduced use of glyphosate will require an even greater focus on integrated weed management to reduce weed establishment in agroecosystems, increase weed management diversity and limit the use of alternative resistance-prone herbicides.
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    Open Access
    “Death or conversion”: From welfare to famine in the Jewish quarter of Lleida, Spain (12th–14th century)
    (John Wiley & Sons, 2024-03-27) Nieto Espinet, Ariadna; Valenzuela-Lamas, Silvia; Morán Álvarez, Marta; Payà Mercé, Xavier; Gil Gabernet, Isabel
    The urban planning work carried out in the old seminary district of Lleida, over an area of more than 6,000 m2, uncovered important remains of the old Cuirassa quarter. This quarter was inhabited by the Jewish aljama between the 12th century and the end of the 15th century CE. Archeological excavations have documented streets, squares, and private spaces corresponding to several houses, one of which was destroyed by the Christian assault and fire of the Jewish quarter on 13 August 1391. The study of the important archeozoological assemblages from this area has made it possible to characterize, for the first time, the dietary practices of the Jewish communities in different periods of occupation of this neighborhood. In addition, the consumption of certain non-kosher species in the late 14th century assemblages could be related with a situation of crisis or famine (which could correspond to the period after the attack of 1391), providing relevant data on the status and situation of the Jewish community in the city at that time. The results are consistent with the context defined by the historical sources, which describe an important period of decline after the attack.
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    Open Access
    Lower bounds for the local cyclicity for families of centers
    (Elsevier, 2021) Giné, Jaume; Gouveia, Luiz F. S.; Torregrosa, Joan
    In this paper, we are interested in how the local cyclicity of a family of centers depends on the parameters. This fact was pointed out in [21], to prove that there exists a family of cubic centers, labeled by in [25], with more local cyclicity than expected. In this family, there is a special center such that at least twelve limit cycles of small amplitude bifurcate from the origin when we perturb it in the cubic polynomial general class. The original proof has some crucial missing points in the arguments that we correct here. We take advantage of a better understanding of the bifurcation phenomenon in nongeneric cases to show two new cubic systems exhibiting 11 limit cycles and another exhibiting 12. Finally, using the same techniques, we study the local cyclicity of holomorphic quartic centers, proving that 21 limit cycles of small amplitude bifurcate from the origin, when we perturb in the class of quartic polynomial vector fields.