Articles publicats (Dret)

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    Open Access
    Human trafficking for labour exploitation: The survivors’ perspective
    (Sage, 2023) Villacampa Estiarte, Carolina
    Despite being the second most prevalent form of human trafficking, human trafficking for labour exploitation remains a victimisation process that has received little scholarly attention. This qualitative study, based on data from in-depth interviews with labour trafficking survivors in Spain, seeks to apprehend how they experienced that situation while giving them a voice and adopting a survivor-centric approach to the phenomenon. To this end, it first analyses from their perspective the process of their enslavement, as well as the feelings it engendered: from recruitment, to transfer, to exploitation, including the objective circumstances and means used. It then analyses the essential aspects of the process leading to their liberation, examining how the situation was ended, the type of assistance received and desired, and the recourse they had to a criminal law response. It concludes with a series of proposals for how labour trafficking should be institutionally addressed in view of the survivors’ suggestions.
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    Embargo
    Labour trafficking prosecution: what is not working in Spain?
    (Taylor and Francis Group, 2023) Villacampa Estiarte, Carolina
    Despite being one of the most prevalent manifestations of trafficking in human beings, labour exploitation still results in few convictions. Based on 33 interviews with 28 professionals from the criminal justice system and 5 from the field of labour, this paper analyses the obstacles these professionals face when approaching this crime in Spain as a case study of what may not be working in other Western European countries. The research results point to three types of barriers encountered when dealing with these cases: regulatory; institutional (both pretrial and extra-procedural and during the criminal proceedings themselves); and those related to professionals’ attitudes towards these cases. The difficulties that can be included in each of these areas are identified, and solutions are proposed to overcome them to make the criminal justice system’s response to this crime more effective.
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    Open Access
    La violencia contra las mujeres por honor y su tratamiento jurídico en España
    (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2023) Villacampa Estiarte, Carolina
    La violencia de honor constituye una de las manifestaciones de la violencia contra las mujeres que, de acuerdo con el Convenio de Estambul del Consejo de Europa, los Estados parte deben afrontar holísticamente. Tal aproximación comporta no solo la persecución penal de estas conductas, sino también su prevención y, sobre todo, la protección de sus víctimas. En este trabajo se analiza conceptual, fenomenológica y jurídicamente esta manifestación de la violencia en un contexto internacional y comparado, descendiendo después a la realidad en España. Se confirma, tras efectuar la correspondiente descripción de la situación, que la aproximación a la violencia de honor en este país es incompleta en los planos jurídico, institucional y académico. Se concluye afirmando la conveniencia de su análisis fenomenológico junto a un estudio sistemático de las respuestas jurídicas e institucionales más adecuadas para abordarla en España.
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    Open Access
    El cáñamo, una fibra textil sostenible
    (Centro de Investigación ALAC, 2023-01-04) Muriel Páez, Miguel; Pullas, Marco
    A lo largo de los tiempos, esta planta ha estado presente en los hechos más importantes de la humanidad; desde el encuentro de dos mundos con la llegada de Colón a América, la impresión de importantes textos, la independencia de grandes naciones y demás sucesos a lo largo y ancho del globo y de la historia . Se la ha usado como medicina, fibra, sustancia recreacional, repelente de animales, alimento y estimulante. Crece a una velocidad mucho mayor que otras nobles fibras como el algodón, usa menos agua que la mayoría de los cultivos comparables y tiene una resistencia innata frente a plagas y parásitos. La utilización del cáñamo como fibra textil sostenible, es una tendencia que está destacando en los principales mercados mundiales, tanto por su corto tiempo de obtención, como por su durabilidad y relación amigable con el medio ambiente.
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    Open Access
    Semantics and Non-Fungible Tokens for Copyright Management on the Metaverse and Beyond
    (Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023) García González, Roberto; Cediel, Ana; Teixidó Cairol, Mercè; Gil Iranzo, Rosa María
    Recent initiatives related to the Metaverse focus on better visualisation, like augmented or virtual reality, but also persistent digital objects. To guarantee real ownership of these digital objects, open systems based on public blockchains and Non-Fungible Tokens (NFTs) are emerging together with a nascent decentralized and open creator economy. To manage this emerging economy in a more organised way, and fight the so common NFT plagiarism, we propose CopyrightLY, a decentralized application for authorship and copyright management. It provides means to claim content authorship, including supporting evidence. Content and metadata are stored in decentralized storage and registered on the blockchain. A token is used to curate these claims, and potential complaints, by staking it on them. Staking is incentivized by the fact that the token is minted using a bonding curve. The tokenomics include the resolution of complaints and enabling the monetization of curated claims. Monetization is achieved through licensing NFTs with metadata enhanced by semantic technologies. Semantic data makes explicit the reuse conditions transferred with the token while keeping the connection to the underlying copyright claims to improve the trustability of the NFTs. Moreover, the semantic metadata is flexible enough to enable licensing not just in the real world. Licenses can refer to reuses in specific locations in a metaverse, thus facilitating the emergence of creative economies in them.