Articles publicats (Ciència Animal)

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    Open Access
    Survival of viral pathogens in animal feed ingredients under transboundary shipping models
    (Public Library of Science, 2018-03-20) Dee, Scott; Bauermann, Fernando ; Niederwerder, Megan ; Singrey, Aaron; Clement, Travis ; de Lima, Marcelo ; Long, Craig; Patterson, Gilbert; Sheahan, Maureen ; Stoian, Ana Maria Mihaela ; Petrovan, Vlad ; Jones, Cassandra ; De Jong, Jon ; Ji, Ju ; Spronk, Gordon
    The goal of this study was to evaluate survival of important viral pathogens of livestock in animal feed ingredients imported daily into the United States under simulated transboundary conditions. Eleven viruses were selected based on global significance and impact to the livestock industry, including Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), Classical Swine Fever Virus (CSFV), African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV), Influenza A Virus of Swine (IAV-S), Pseudorabies virus (PRV), Nipah Virus (NiV), Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV), Swine Vesicular Disease Virus (SVDV), Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (VSV), Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) and Vesicular Exanthema of Swine Virus (VESV). Surrogate viruses with similar genetic and physical properties were used for 6 viruses. Surrogates belonged to the same virus families as target pathogens, and included Senecavirus A (SVA) for FMDV, Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) for CSFV, Bovine Herpesvirus Type 1 (BHV1) for PRV, Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) for NiV, Porcine Sapelovirus (PSV) for SVDV and Feline Calicivirus (FCV) for VESV. For the remaining target viruses, actual pathogens were used. Virus survival was evaluated using Trans-Pacific or Trans-Atlantic transboundary models involving representative feed ingredients, transport times and environmental conditions, with samples tested by PCR, VI and/or swine bioassay. SVA (representing FMDV), FCV (representing VESV), BHV-1 (representing PRV), PRRSV, PSV (representing SVDV), ASFV and PCV2 maintained infectivity during transport, while BVDV (representing CSFV), VSV, CDV (representing NiV) and IAV-S did not. Notably, more viruses survived in conventional soybean meal, lysine hydrochloride, choline chloride, vitamin D and pork sausage casings. These results support published data on transboundary risk of PEDV in feed, demonstrate survival of certain viruses in specific feed ingredients (“high-risk combinations”) under conditions simulating transport between continents and provide further evidence that contaminated feed ingredients may represent a risk for transport of pathogens at domestic and global levels.
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    Open Access
    Evaluating hunting and capture methods for urban wild boar population management
    (Elsevier, 2024) Escobar-González, María; López-Martín, Josep-Maria; Mentaberre García, Gregorio; Valldeperes, Marta; Estruch, Josep; Tampach, Stefania; Castillo-Contreras, Raquel; Conejero, Carles; Roldán, Joan; Lavín, Santiago; Serrano, Emmanuel; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón
    Wild ungulates are expanding in range and number worldwide leading to an urgent need to manage their populations to minimize conflicts and promote coexistence with humans. In the metropolitan area of Barcelona (MAB), wild boar is the main wildlife species causing a nuisance, from traffic accidents to health risks. Selective harvesting of specific sex and age classes and reducing anthropogenic food resources would be the most efficient approach to dealing with overpopulation. Nonetheless, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the age and sex selectivity of the capture methods currently applied in the MAB for wild boar population control. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the performance and age and sex bias of different hunting and capture methods and the seasonal patterns in their performance (number of captured individuals per event). From February 2014 to August 2022, 1454 wild boars were captured in the MAB using drop net, teleanaesthesia, cage traps, night stalks, and drive hunting. We applied generalized linear models (GLM) to compare the performance of these methods for the total number of wild boars, the wild boars belonging to each age category (i.e., adult, yearling, and juvenile), and for each season. The studied capture methods showed age-class bias and sex bias in adults (>2 years). Drive hunting and drop net removed mainly adult females and yearlings (1–2 years), with drive hunting having the highest performance for adult males. Instead, cage traps and drop net were the best methods to capture juveniles (<1 year). Overall, global performance was higher in summer, decreasingly followed by autumn and spring, winter being the worst performing season. Wildlife managers and researchers should consider the different performance and sex and age bias of each hunting and capture method, as well as the associated public cost, to improve efficiency and achieve the best results in wild boar population management.
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    Open Access
    Half-Life of African Swine Fever Virus in Shipped Feed
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019-12-01) Stoian, Ana Maria Mihaela; Zimmerman, Jeff; Ji, Ju; Hefley, Trevor; Dee, Scott; Diel, Diego; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Niederwerder, Megan
    African swine fever virus is transmissible through animal consumption of contaminated feed. To determine virus survival during transoceanic shipping, we calculated the half-life of the virus in 9 feed ingredients exposed to 30-day shipment conditions. Half-lives ranged from 9.6 to 14.2 days, indicating that the feed matrix environment promotes virus stability.
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    Open Access
    Infectious Dose of African Swine Fever Virus When Consumed Naturally in Liquid or Feed
    (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2019-05-01) Niederwerder, Megan; Stoian, Ana Maria Mihaela; Rowland, Raymond R. R.; Dritz, Steve; Petrovan, Vlad; Constance, Laura; Gebhardt, Jordan; Olcha, Matthew; Jones, Cassandra; Woodworth, Jason; Fang, Ying; Liang, Jia; Hefley, Trevor
    African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a contagious, rapidly spreading, transboundary animal disease and a major threat to pork production globally. Although plant-based feed has been identified as a potential route for virus introduction onto swine farms, little is known about the risks for ASFV transmission in feed. We aimed to determine the minimum and median infectious doses of the Georgia 2007 strain of ASFV through oral exposure during natural drinking and feeding behaviors. The minimum infectious dose of ASFV in liquid was 100 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50), compared with 104 TCID50 in feed. The median infectious dose was 101.0 TCID50 for liquid and 106.8 TCID50 for feed. Our findings demonstrate that ASFV Georgia 2007 can easily be transmitted orally, although higher doses are required for infection in plant-based feed. These data provide important information that can be incorporated into risk models for ASFV transmission.
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    Open Access
    Global and local conformational changes in albumin-ligand interactions through spectroscopic methods
    (Revue Roumaine de Chimie, 2017-01-08) Stoian, Ana Maria Mihaela; Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana
    We aim at studying global and local conformational changes in protein subsequent to two very important types of processes, i.e. ligand binding and non-covalent interactions with nanostructured systems. The methods used are Raman spectroscopy, a widely used tool for monitoring global changes in protein secondary structure, and time-resolved emission spectroscopy, which takes advantage of the fluorescent amino acid residues, mainly tryptophan, in order to highlight local conformational changes at the fluorophore level. In this paper we focus on human serum albumin, with one Trp residue, in interaction with the flavonoid kaempferol and silver nanoparticles.