- ItemOpen AccessCan traditional management practices help mountain livestock farms in the Spanish Pyrenees cope with climate change?(Springer Science and Business Media, 2024) Muñoz-Ulecia, Enrique; Martín-Collado, Daniel; Bernués, Alberto; Peral, Alicia Tenza; Casasús, Isabel; Villalba Mata, DanielLivestock grazing systems constitute a traditional activity in mountain areas. They are adapted to vegetation growth cycles in meadows, forests and grasslands, and deliver ecosystem services such as open landscapes, wildfires prevention, biodiversity maintenance and quality products. Climate change poses a new challenge on mountain grazing systems by impacting on its natural resource base. We used the model NODRIZA to evaluate the potential impact of three scenarios of altered pasture quality and quantity due to climate change (optimistic, medium and worst) and a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) on four beef farms representative of the existing grazing systems in the Spanish Pyrenees. We explored the role of traditional management practices (e.g. modifying the grazing season and early weaning) to cope with these changes. Cow body condition score, feed self-sufficiency and gross margin were the indicators of farms functioning. The optimistic scenario improved all farming indicators during most of the modelled period and then declined—still above BAU levels—in the long term. The medium scenario resulted in an initial improvement of farming indicators and a decline to BAU levels in the long run. The worst scenario declined all indicators below BAU levels. The four case studies were impacted in the same direction but to different extent, farms oriented to fattened calves suffered higher impacts than those focused on weaned calves. Traditional adaptation actions succeeded to maintain cow body condition score steady, but they came at the expense of lower feed self-sufficiency and gross margin, becoming impractical to face climate change.
- ItemOpen AccessAngler’s preferences, perceptions and practices regarding non-native freshwater fish(Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2024) Banha, F.; Gago , J.; Margalejo, D.; Feijão, J.; Casals i Martí, Frederic; Anastácio , P.M.; Ribeiro, F.It is globally recognized that freshwater anglers can have a decisive role in promoting fish introductions. The aim of this study was to analyze freshwater anglers’ actions and perceptions regarding fish introductions, comparing two distinct situations, one with recently arrived non-natives fishes and another with older fish introductions, using the Iberian Peninsula as a case study. To achieve this goal, a bilingual survey was implemented on-line in Portugal and Spain and in person (direct inquiries) in two Iberian regions: Lower Ebro (older fish introductions) in Spain; and Lower Tagus (recent fish introductions) in Portugal. Results showed spatial differences in perceptions and actions, namely about the target species, awareness of the impact of non-native fishes, fish introductions reported and proportion of anglers that wanted new fish species. In the Ebro river there is a high percentage of foreign anglers, higher awareness of fish introduction impact and lower introduction rates reported than in the Tagus river. However, popularity of non-native species like European catfish, was higher in the Ebro. In general, although risk behaviors such as use of fish as life bait was of low prevalence for both countries (approx. 5%), it corresponds to large numbers of fish being introduced. Our conservative estimates revealed 273,600 events of bait discharge per year. Regarding the intentional introductions, we estimated a total of 140,000 intentional introduction (illegal) events per year. These findings may help to improve monitoring, awareness and fisheries management programs led by governmental agencies. Graphical abstract: (Figure presented.)
- ItemOpen AccessPrimary Verocay Body-rich Epididymal Leiomyosarcoma in a Dog(Elsevier, 2020-07) Ramírez, Gustavo A.; Suárez-Bonnet, Alejandro; Sánchez Salguero, Xavier; Molín, JéssicaLeiomyosarcomas arising from paratesticular structures are rare. We report a case of epididymal sarcoma in an aged male Rottweiler that had histological features suggestive of neural origin but with muscular histogenesis confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Histologically, the lesion comprised a hypercellular neoplasm that had interlacing bundles of spindloid cells, prominent nuclear palisading and many Verocay bodies. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells were strongly positive for smooth muscle markers but negative for neural markers, leading to the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. While the presence of nuclear palisading and Verocay bodies has been regarded as strong evidence for the diagnosis of schwannomas, the present report documents the presence of true Verocay bodies in a non-neuronal tumour. It also indicates that immunophenotyping is required for an accurate diagnosis when Verocay bodies are detected in sarcomatous or spindle cell tumours and provides prognostic information on this case. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of true Verocay bodies in a neoplasm other than a nerve sheath tumour in animals.
- ItemOpen AccessWarming and acidification-mediated resilience to bacterial infection determine mortality of early Ostrea edulis life stages(Inter Research, 2016-03) Prado, Patricia; Roque, Ana; Pérez, Josu; Ibáñez, Carles; Alcaraz, Carles; Casals i Martí, Frederic; Caiola, NunoThe combined effects of temperature and seawater acidification were investigated across larval stages of the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis, from veliger sizes released by gravid individuals to spat. Simultaneous experiments were also conducted to investigate the potential effects of reduced pH levels on bacterial growth that could provide a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of seawater acidification on larval mortality. Larvae (veliger, umbonate, and pediveliger) and spat were exposed to 4 temperatures (18, 22, 26, and 30°C) and 4 pH treatments (7.83-7.92 [ambient], low-reduced, medium-reduced, and high-reduced), and the 4 pH treatments were also used in bacterial experiments. Results showed increased larval mortalities at 30°C (by ca. 49 and 44% in veliger and umbonate stages, respectively), although there was also a bottleneck in pediveligers from 22 to 30°C and no effects on spat. In contrast, the survival of veligers increased with pH reductions by ca. 26%, and was marginally increased in pediveligers despite high mortality at this stage. No shell malformations were observed at any larval stage or in spat, and growth patterns tended to mirror those of survival. This coincided with lower bacterial growth, particularly of Vibrio spp., in the 2 lowest pH treatments, suggesting that seawater acidification may help to prevent bacterial pathogenicity in O. edulis larvae. Compared to available information on the vulnerability of other commercial bivalves to ocean acidification, our results suggest that O. edulis could be a more resilient species; however, further research is needed to investigate the potential effects on gravid females and sperm.
- ItemOpen AccessCombined effects of hydrologic alteration and cyprinid fish in mediating biogeochemical processes in a Mediterranean stream(Elsevier, 2017-12) Rubio-Gracia, Francesc; Almeida, David; Bonet, Berta; Casals i Martí, Frederic; Espinosa, Carmen; Flecker, Alexander S.; García-Berthou, Emili; Martí, Eugènia; Tuulaikhuu, Baigal-Amar; Vila-Gispert, Anna; Zamora, Lluis; Guasch, HelenaFlow regimes are important drivers of both stream community and biogeochemical processes. However, the interplay between community and biogeochemical responses under different flow regimes in streams is less understood. In this study, we investigated the structural and functional responses of periphyton and macroinvertebrates to different densities of the Mediterranean barbel (Barbus meridionalis, Cyprinidae) in two stream reaches differing in flow regime. The study was conducted in Llémena Stream, a small calcareous Mediterranean stream with high nutrient levels. We selected a reach with permanent flow (permanent reach) and another subjected to flow regulation (regulated reach) with periods of flow intermittency. At each reach, we used in situ cages to generate 3 levels of fish density. Cages with 10 barbels were used to simulate high fish density (> 7 ind m− 2); cages with open sides were used as controls (i.e. exposed to actual fish densities of each stream reach) thus having low fish density; and those with no fish were used to simulate the disappearance of fish that occurs with stream drying. Differences in fish density did not cause significant changes in periphyton biomass and macroinvertebrate density. However, phosphate uptake by periphyton was enhanced in treatments lacking fish in the regulated reach with intermittent flow but not in the permanent reach, suggesting that hydrologic alteration hampers the ability of biotic communities to compensate for the absence of fish. This study indicates that fish density can mediate the effects of anthropogenic alterations such as flow intermittence derived from hydrologic regulation on stream benthic communities and associated biogeochemical processes, at least in eutrophic streams.