- ItemOpen AccessDiagnosis and Treatment of Sleep Apnea in Children: A Future Perspective Is Needed(MDPI, 2023) Solano Pérez, Esther; Coso, Carlota; Castillo García, María; Romero Peralta, Sofía; López Monzoni, Sonia; Laviña, Eduardo; Cano-Pumarega, Irene; Sánchez de la Torre, Manuel; García-Río, Francisco; Mediano, OlgaObstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in children is a prevalent, but still, today, underdiagnosed illness, which consists of repetitive episodes of upper airway obstruction during sleep with important repercussions for sleep quality. OSA has relevant consequences in the pediatric population, mainly in the metabolic, cardiovascular (CV), and neurological spheres. However, contrary to adults, advances in diagnostic and therapeutic management have been scarce in the last few years despite the increasing scientific evidence of the deleterious consequences of pediatric OSA. The problem of underdiagnosis and the lack of response to treatment in some groups make an update to the management of OSA in children necessary. Probably, the heterogeneity of OSA is not well represented by the classical clinical presentation and severity parameters (apnea/hypopnea index (AHI)), and new strategies are required. A specific and consensus definition should be established. Additionally, the role of simplified methods in the diagnosis algorithm should be considered. Finally, the search for new biomarkers for risk stratification is needed in this population. In conclusion, new paradigms based on personalized medicine should be implemented in this population.
- ItemOpen AccessQuadriceps and gluteus medius activity during stable and unstable loading exercises in athletes. A cross‐sectional study(Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society, 2023-08-28) López de Celis, Carlos; Sánchez Alfonso, Núria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Jacobo; Romaní Sánchez, Sergi; Labata Lezaun, Noé; Canet-Vintró, Max; Aiguadé Aiguadé, Ramon; Pérez Bellmunt, AlbertThe aim of this study was to evaluate the muscle activation of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and gluteus medius during different strength and stability exercises with a water tank compared with a sandbag. A cross‐sectional study was conducted in the Functional Anatomy Laboratory, and the sample consisted of 28 athletes. The main outcome measures were surface electromyography (dependent variable), water tank and sandbag, and exercise type (independent variables): Isometric Single Leg Stance (ISLS), One Leg Deadlift (OLDL), Front Rack Forward Lunge (FRFL), and Lateral Lunge (LL). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant Group × Time interaction in gluteus medius root mean square (RMS) (F = 14.198, p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.35), vastus lateralis RMS (F = 24.374, p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.47), and vastus medialis RMS (F = 27.261, p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.50). In the between‐group analysis, statistically significant differences were observed in gluteus medius RMS in the ISLS: 28.5 ± 15.8 water tank and 20.8 ± 12.6 sandbag (p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.08) and OLDL: 29.7 ± 13.3 water tank and 26.5 ± 13.1 sandbag (p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.01). In vastus lateralis in ISLS: 30.4 ± 37.6 water tank and 19.0 ± 26.7 sandbag (p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.03). In vastus medialis in ISLS: 14.2 ± 13.0 water tank and 7.0 ± 5.6 sandbag (p < 0.001, ŋ2 = 0.12), OLDL: 21.5 ± 16.9 water tank and 15.5 ± 10.7 sandbag (p = 0.002, ŋ2 = 0.04), and LL: 51.8 ± 29.6 water tank and 54.3 ± 29.3 sandbag (p = 0.017, ŋ2 = 0.00). These results confirm significantly greater activation of the gluteus medius and vastus medialis in the ISLS and OLDL exercises, and of the vastus lateralis in the water tank ISLS exercise. However, the vastus medialis shows greater activation in the LL exercise.
- ItemOpen AccessExperiences of Telenursing in Overcoming Challenges and Applaying Strategies by COVID-19 Patients in Home Isolation: Qualitative Study in Primary Care(MDPI, 2023-07-22) Tort Nasarre, Glòria; Espart Herrero, Anna; Galbany Estragués, Paola; Álvarez Mora, Bruna; Subías Miquel, Martí; Romeu Labayen, MariaDuring the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a significant increase in the use of telenursing to provide care for patients at home. However, the quality of the patient experience when nurses rely on technology instead of personal contact has not been thoroughly investigated. This study aimed to understand the perspectives of COVID-19 patients in home isolation who received telenursing from primary care nurses during the initial phase of the pandemic. A qualitative study was conducted that employed purposive sampling and involved semi-structured interviews via videoconference with fourteen COVID-19 patients from two primary health centers in Catalonia (Spain). Thematic analysis was used, and the study adhered to the COREQ checklist. The findings revealed three themes related to the challenges faced by COVID-19 patients in home isolation: physical symptoms, emotional and social difficulties, and a lack of information. Three themes emerged regarding the strategies patients employed to overcome these challenges and the role of nurses: self-care, emotional support, and personal commitment. The patients reported having achieved strategies to improve their physical, psychological, and situational well-being despite the unprecedented situation. The study highlights that telenursing is a valuable resource for delivering patient-centered care, which could lead to changes in organisational policies and the development of best clinical practices.
- ItemOpen AccessPulse Wave Amplitude Drops Index: A Biomarker of Cardiovascular Risk in Obstructive Sleep Apnea(American Thoracic Society, 2023) Solelhac, Geoffroy; Sánchez de la Torre, Manuel; Blanchard, Margaux; Berger, Mathieu; Hirotsu, Camila; Imler, Theo; Sánchez de la Torre, Alicia; Haba Rubio, José; Marchi, Nicola Andrea; Bayon, Virginie; Bailly, Sebastien; Goupil, François; Waeber , Adrien; Heiniger, Gregory; Pigeanne, Thierry; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Zapater, Andrea; Abad, Jorge; Ordax-Carbajo, Estrella; Masdeu, María José; Cabriada‑Nuño, Valentín; Egea, Carlos; Van Den Broecke, Sandra; Vollenweider, Peter; Marques Vidal, Pedro Manuel; Vaucher, Julien; Bernardi, Giulio; Betta, Monica; Siclari, Francesca; Barbé Illa, Ferran; Gagnadoux, Fredéric; Heinzer, RaphaelRationale: It is currently unclear which patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are at increased cardiovascular risk. Objective: To investigate the value of pulse wave amplitude drops (PWADs), reflecting sympathetic activations and vasoreactivity, as a biomarker of cardiovascular risk in OSA. Methods: PWADs were derived from pulse oximetry-based photoplethysmography signals in three prospective cohorts: HypnoLaus (N = 1,941), the Pays-de-la-Loire Sleep Cohort (PLSC; N = 6,367), and "Impact of Sleep Apnea syndrome in the evolution of Acute Coronary syndrome. Effect of intervention with CPAP" (ISAACC) (N = 692). The PWAD index was the number of PWADs (>30%) per hour during sleep. All participants were divided into subgroups according to the presence or absence of OSA (defined as ⩾15 or more events per hour or <15/h, respectively, on the apnea-hypopnea index) and the median PWAD index. Primary outcome was the incidence of composite cardiovascular events. Measurements and Main Results: Using Cox models adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors (hazard ratio; HR [95% confidence interval]), patients with a low PWAD index and OSA had a higher incidence of cardiovascular events compared with the high-PWAD and OSA group and those without OSA in the HypnoLaus cohort (HR, 2.16 [1.07-4.34], P = 0.031; and 2.35 [1.12-4.93], P = 0.024) and in the PLSC (1.36 [1.13-1.63], P = 0.001; and 1.44 [1.06-1.94], P = 0.019), respectively. In the ISAACC cohort, the low-PWAD and OSA untreated group had a higher cardiovascular event recurrence rate than that of the no-OSA group (2.03 [1.08-3.81], P = 0.028). In the PLSC and HypnoLaus cohorts, every increase of 10 events per hour in the continuous PWAD index was negatively associated with incident cardiovascular events exclusively in patients with OSA (HR, 0.85 [0.73-0.99], P = 0.031; and HR, 0.91 [0.86-0.96], P < 0.001, respectively). This association was not significant in the no-OSA group and the ISAACC cohort. Conclusions: In patients with OSA, a low PWAD index reflecting poor autonomic and vascular reactivity was independently associated with a higher cardiovascular risk.
- ItemOpen AccessThe impact of docosahexaenoic acid on maternal mental health: scoping review(Aran Ediciones, 2023-06-06) Masot, Olga; Ochoa Herrera, Julio José; Paraíso Pueyo, Elena; Roca Llobet, Judith; Miranda Iglesias, Jessica; Lavedán, AnaDocosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a polyunsaturated essential fatty acid from the omega-3 series that appears to be key to perinatal mental health. For this, the aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of DHA on maternal mental health during pregnancy and lactation with respect to depression and anxiety. The present scoping review was carried out following the methodology of Arksey and O'Malley (2005). The selection of studies was carried out in accordance with PRISMA by means of systematic searches in the PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and Medline databases. The results classified according to the effectiveness of DHA. In most (n = 9) of the 14 studies finally included, DHA plasma levels with or without other polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids were significantly lower in pregnant women with depressive and anxiety symptoms. However, no study reported a beneficial effect of DHA on mental health during the postpartum period. The majority used detection method was the Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (n = 11). The prevalence of depressive symptoms ranged between 5.9 % and 50 %. As a conclusion, although more research is needed in this area, these exploratory results suggest that DHA could play an important role in preventing the pathogenesis of depression and anxiety during gestation.