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- ItemRestricted1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 regulates VEGF production through a vitamin D response element in the VEGF promoter(Elsevier, 2009) Cardús i Figueras, Anna; Panizo García, Sara; Encinas Martín, Mario; Dolcet Roca, Xavier; Gallego, Carme; Aldea, Martí; Fernández i Giráldez, Elvira ; Valdivielso Revilla, José ManuelIn previous studies we have demonstrated that the active form of vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3) increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and release in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) in vitro. However, the mechanism by which 1,25(OH)2D3 increases VEGF production is currently unknown. In this work, we demonstrated binding of vitamin D receptor to two response elements in the VEGF promoter. We performed promoter transactivation analysis and we observed that, in 293T cells, VEGF promoter was activated after vitamin D treatment. Using site-directed mutagenesis we have shown that both response elements are important for VEGF promoter activity. Therefore, the increase in VEGF expression and secretion induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 in VSMC in vitro could be explained by direct binding of the vitamin D receptor, as a transcription factor, to VEGF promoter. These results could explain part of the beneficial effects of vitamin D treatment in renal patients by a possible VEGF-mediated improvement of the endothelial dysfunction.
- ItemOpen Access1-octadecene, A Female Produced Aggregation Pheromone of the Coffee White Stem Borer (Xylotrechus quadripes)(MDPI, 2023) Mangalgikar, Prashant; Madhura Bhanu, Karumuru Raja; Belavadi, Vasuki; Vinod Kumar, P K.; Ammagarahalli Munishamappa, ByrappaCoffee white stem borer, Xylotrechus quadripes is a serious insect pest of coffee across the world. Pheromone traps baited with male produced 2-hydroxy- 3-decanone (2H3D) attracted females, and also males. Interestingly, a pair of males and females in a cage attracted more beetles compared to 2H3D traps. We hypothesized volatiles emitted from females are perceived by males. Volatiles from females were collected through the air entrainment method and identified 1-octadecene by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Release of 1-octadecene was female specific, however, both male and female antennae elicited responses in chromatography-electroantennography. Electroantennogram responses were dose-dependent in both sexes and were higher in the antennae of females. Combination of male pheromone component 2H3D, and female produced 1-octadecene at 1:2 ratio increased both male (0.69 ± 0.13; mean ± SEM in -mV) and female (0.98 ± 0.20) antennal responses. Responses to constant doses of 2H3D and increasing doses of 1-octadecene (1:4, 1:6, 1:8, 1:10) were not different from male pheromone alone. Beetle captures to male pheromone alone at 3 different doses (75, 150 and 300 mg) were not significantly different from a pair of live beetle traps. A blend of 2H3D and 1-octadecene at 1:2 ratio trapped more beetles (3.50 ± 0.65; mean ± SEM) over 2H3D alone (2.00 ± 0.82), overall, our experiments suggest 1-octadecene is an aggregation pheromone. Our results support the hypothesis that males use 1-octadecene in mate finding, and potential to use it for monitoring and mass trapping.
- ItemOpen Access100 casos de derecho de daños (2004-2009)(Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2010) Salvador Coderch, Pablo; Ramos González, Sonia; Alascio Carrasco, Laura; Farnós Amorós, Esther; Fernández Crende, Antonio; Marín García, Ignacio; Milà Rafel, Rosa; Riera Roca, Magalí; Ruiz García, Carlos Alb.InDret presenta, por sexto año consecutivo, una selección de veinte sentencias sobre responsabilidad civil dictadas por el Tribunal Supremo que tratan cuestiones centrales del derecho de daños. El lector también encontrará en este trabajo las selecciones de 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 y 2008 publicadas en números anteriores.
- ItemMetadata only1001 Inventions. Discover The Muslim Heritage In Our World (Science Museum, Londres)(Universitat de Lleida. Departament de Didàctiques Específiques, 2010) Llonch Molina, Nayra
- ItemRestricted128 x 128 CMOS Image Sensor With Analog Memory for Synchronous Image Capture(Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, 2002) Chapinal, Genis; Bota, Sebastian A.; Moreno, Mauricio; Palacín Roca, Jordi; Herms, AtilàA 128 x 128 CMOS imager that permits synchronous capture is presented. The sensor combines the best of CMOS imagers (low-power, random readout, nondestructive readout, single supply voltage…) and synchronous capture [available in high-end charge coupled device (CCD) imagers]. The key point in obtaining such characteristics is the separation of the photosensor and the storage element. Although some sensors with these characteristics have been reported, in this sensor, the storage capability has been brought a step further, having storage times in the order of tens of seconds, and being able to use the array itself as a random access memory (RAM). This could avoid the use of external RAM, making the system simpler, more compact, and of low-power consumption.
- ItemOpen Access1848, une révolution du discours, sous la direction d'Hélène Millot et de Corinne Saminadayar-Perrin, collection Lieux Littéraires, Editions des Cahiers intempestifs, Saint-Etienne, 2001, 295 pp.(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2003) Santa, ÀngelsRessenya del llibre: 1848, une révolution du discours, sous la direction d'Hélène Millot et de Corinne Saminadayar-Perrin, collection Lieux Littéraires, Editions des Cahiers intempestifs, Saint-Etienne, 2001, 295 pp.
- ItemRestricted1896-1909: un invent sense futur(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 1996) Machetti Sánchez, Sandro
- ItemOpen Access1970-1979 : Crisi! Quina crisi?(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 1996) Machetti Sánchez, Sandro
- ItemOpen Access2-phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) uncovers a necrotic process regulated by oxidative stress and p53(Elsevier, 2014) Mattiolo, Paolo; Barbero-Farran A.; Yuste Mateos, Víctor J. (Víctor José); Boix Torras, Jacint; Ribas i Fortuny, Judit2-Phenylethynesulfonamide (PES) or pifithrin-μ is a promising anticancer agent with preferential toxicity for cancer cells. The type of cell death and the molecular cascades activated by this compound are controversial. Here, we demonstrate PES elicits a caspase- and BAX/BAK-independent non-necroptotic necrotic cell death, since it is not inhibited by necrostatin-1. This process is characterized by an early generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) resulting in p53 up-regulation. Accordingly, thiolic antioxidants protect cells from PES-induced death. Furthermore, inhibiting the natural sources of glutathione with l-buthionine-sulfoximine (BSO) strongly cooperates with PES in triggering cytotoxicity. Genetically modified p53-null or p53 knocked-down cells show resistance to PES-driven necrosis. The predominant localization of p53 in chromatin-enriched fractions added to the up-regulation of the p53-responsive gene p21, strongly suggest the involvement of a transcription-dependent p53 program. On the other hand, we report an augmented production of ROS in p53-positive cells that, added to the increased p53 content in response to PES-elicited ROS, suggests that p53 and ROS are mutually regulated in response to PES. In sum, p53 up-regulation by ROS triggers a positive feedback loop responsible of further increasing ROS production and reinforcing PES-driven non-necroptotic necrosis.
- ItemRestricted2-phenylethynesulphonamide (PFT-μ) enhances the anticancer effect of the novel hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 in melanoma, by reducing GSH levels(Wiley online library, 2016) Yeramian Hakim, Andree; Veà Jódar, Àlvar; Benítez, Sandra; Ribera i Calvet, Joan; Domingo, Mónica; Santacana Espasa, Maria; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Maiques Carlos, Oscar; Valls Marsal, Joan; Dolcet Roca, Xavier; Vilella, Ramón; Cabiscol Català, Elisa; Matias-Guiu, Xavier; Martí Laborda, Rosa Ma.Heat shock proteins (HSPs), are molecular chaperones that assist the proper folding of nascent proteins. This study aims to evaluate the antitumour effects of the hsp90 inhibitor NVP-AUY922 in melanoma, both in vitro and in vivo. Our results show that NVP-AUY922 inhibits melanoma cell growth in vitro, with down regulation of multiple signalling pathways involved in melanoma progression such as NF-KB and MAPK/ERK. However, NVP-AUY922 was unable to limit tumour growth in vivo. Cotreatment of A375M xenografts with NVP-AUY922 and PFT-l, a dual inhibitor of both hsp70 and autophagy, induced a synergistic increase of cell death in vitro, and delayed tumour formation in A375M xenografts. PFT-l depleted cells from the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) and increased oxidative stress. The oxidative stress induced by PFT-l further enhanced NVP-AUY922-induced cytotoxic effects. These data suggest a potential therapeutic role for NVP-AUY922 used in combination with PFT-l, in melanoma.
- ItemOpen Access2018 consensus statement by the Spanish Society of Pathology and the Spanish Society of Medical Oncology on the diagnosis and treatment of cancer of unknown primary(Springer, 2018) Losa, F.; Iglesias, L.; Pané, M.; Sanz, J.; Nieto, B.; Fusté, V.; de la Cruz‑Merino, L.; Concha, Ángel; Balañá, Carme; Matias-Guiu, XavierCancer of unknown primary (CUP) is defned as a heterogeneous group of tumours that present with metastasis, and in which attempts to identify the original site have failed. They difer from other primary tumours in their biological features and how they spread, which means that they can be considered a separate entity. There are several hypotheses regarding their origin, but the most plausible explanation for their aggressiveness and chemoresistance seems to involve chromosomal instability. Depending on the type of study done, CUP can account for 2–9% of all cancer patients, mostly 60–75 years old. This article reviews the main clinical, pathological, and molecular studies conducted to analyse and determine the origin of CUP.The main strategies for patient management and treatment, by both clinicians and pathologists, are also addressed.
- ItemRestricted21st century climate change threatens mountain flora unequally across Europe(Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2011) Engler, Robin; Randin, Christophe F.; Thuiller, Wilfried; Dullinger, Stefan; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Araújo, Miguel B.; Pearman, Peter B.; Le Lay, Gwenaëlle; Piedallu, Christian; Albert, Cécile H.; Choler, Philippe; Coldea, Gheorghe; de Lamo, Xavier; Dirnböck, Thomas; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Gómez García, Daniel; Grytnes, John Arvid; Heegaard, Einar; Hoistad, Fride; Nogués Bravo, David; Normand, Signe; Puscas, Mihai; Sebastià, Ma. T.; Stanisci, Angela; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Trivedi, Mandar R.; Vittoz, Pascal; Guisan, AntoineContinental-scale assessments of 21st century global impacts of climate change on biodiversity have forecasted range contractions for many species. These coarse resolution studies are, however, of limited relevance for projecting risks to biodiversity in mountain systems, where pronounced microclimatic variation could allow species to persist locally, and are ill-suited for assessment of species-specific threat in particular regions. Here, we assess the impacts of climate change on 2632 plant species across all major European mountain ranges, using high-resolution (ca. 100m) species samples and data expressing four future climate scenarios. Projected habitat loss is greater for species distributed at higher elevations; depending on the climate scenario, we find 36–55% of alpine species, 31–51% of subalpine species and 19–46% of montane species lose more than 80% of their suitable habitat by 2070–2100. While our high-resolution analyses consistently indicate marked levels of threat to cold-adapted mountain florae across Europe, they also reveal unequal distribution of this threat across the various mountain ranges. Impacts on florae from regions projected to undergo increased warming accompanied by decreased precipitation, such as the Pyrenees and the Eastern Austrian Alps, will likely be greater than on florae in regions where the increase in temperature is less pronounced and rainfall increases concomitantly, such as in the Norwegian Scandes and the Scottish Highlands. This suggests that change in precipitation, not only warming, plays an important role in determining the potential impacts of climate change on vegetation.
- ItemOpen Access3D characterization of a Boston Ivy double-skin green building facade using a LiDAR system(Elsevier, 2021-09-02) Pérez Luque, Gabriel; Escolà i Agustí, Alexandre; Rosell Polo, Joan Ramon; Coma Arpón, Julià; Arasanz Riba, Roger; Marrero Farré, Bernat; Cabeza, Luisa F.; Gregorio López, EduardOn the way to more sustainable and resilient urban environments, the incorporation of urban green infrastructure (UGI) systems, such as green roofs and vertical greening systems, must be encouraged. Unfortunately, given their variable nature, these nature-based systems are difficult to geometrically characterize, and therefore there is a lack of 3D objects that adequately reflect their geometry and analytical properties to be used in design processes based on Building Information Modelling (BIM) technologies. This fact can be a disadvantage, during the building's design phase, of UGIs over traditional grey solutions. Areas of knowledge such as precision agriculture, have developed technologies and methodologies that characterize the geometry of vegetation using point cloud capture. The main aim of this research was to create the 3D characterization of an experimental double-skin green facade, using LiDAR technologies. From the results it could be confirmed that the methodology used was precise and robust, enabling the 3D reconstruction of the green facade's outer envelope. Detailed results were that foliage volume differences in height were linked to plant growth, whereas differences in the horizontal distribution of greenery were related to the influence of the local microclimate and specific plant diseases on the south orientation. From this research, along with complementary previous research, it could be concluded that, generally speaking, with vegetation volumes of 0.2 m3/m2, using Boston Ivy (Parthenocissus Tricuspidata) under Mediterranean climate, reductions in external building surface temperatures of around 13 °C can be obtained and used as analytic parameter in a future 3D-BIM-object.
- ItemEmbargo3D Spectral Graph Wavelet Point Signatures in Pre-Processing Stage for Mobile Laser Scanning Point Cloud Registration in Unstructured Orchard Environments(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2021-11-18) Guevara, Javier; Gené Mola, Jordi; Gregorio López, Eduard; Auat Cheein, Fernando A.The use of three-dimensional registration techniques is an important component for sensor-based localization and mapping. Several approaches have been proposed to align three-dimensional data, obtaining meaningful results in structured scenarios. However, the increased use of high-frame-rate 3D sensors has lead to more challenging application scenarios here the performance of registration techniques may degrade significantly. In order to improve the accuracy of the procedure, different works have considered a representative subset of points while preserving application-dependent features for registration. In this work, we tackle such a problem, considering the use of a general feature-extraction operator in the spectral domain as a prior step to the registration. The proposed spectral strategies use three wavelet transforms that are evaluated along with four well-known registration techniques. The methodology was experimentally validated in a dense orchard environment. The results show that the probability of failure in registration can be reduced up to 12.04% for the evaluated approaches, leading to a significant increase in the localization accuracy. Those results validate the effectiveness and efficiency of the spectral-assisted registration algorithms in an agricultural setting and motivate their usage for a wider range of applications.
- ItemOpen Access40 casos de Derecho de daños (2004-2007)(Universitat Pompeu Fabra, 2008) Ramos González, Sonia; Marín García, Ignacio; Milà Rafel, Rosa; Ruiz García, Carlos Alb.; Farnós Amorós, Esther; Alascio Carrasco, Laura; Fernández Crende, AntonioInDret presenta, por cuarto año consecutivo, una selección de diez sentencias del Tribunal Supremo sobre cuestiones centrales del derecho de daños. El lector también encontrará en este trabajo las selecciones de 2004, 2005 y 2006 publicadas en números anteriores.
- ItemOpen Access4BR: Educational Training Programme for the Prevention of Sports Injuries in Young Athletes(MDPI, 2021) Alcubierre Calvo, Núria; Gil Moreno de Mora, Gonzalo; Reig, Francesc; Planas i Anzano, AntoniThis article provides a vision of the importance of the recovery process for the prevention of injuries in young athletes. From a sports psychology perspective, it presents a proposal for an optimisation programme to reduce the negative impact of exertion and subsequent risk of injury. The 4BR programme consists of three sub-programmes (technician advice, vulnerability detection, and the implementation of four recovery habit blocks). An interdisciplinary approach is taken to configure the four healthy blocks: nutrition–hydration, relaxation–rest, social life and personal moments. It demonstrates the importance of personalised adaptation to the sports context and moment in order to achieve maximum effectiveness of the proposed 4BR programme, which comprises workshops, exercises, evaluation systems and information feedback. The presented programme facilitates recovery, optimizes the return to training and reduces the risk of intrinsic injuries in young people. The conclusion drawn from the study is that there is a need to conduct further research to find empirical evidence of the positive effects of applying the 4BR programme to different sports.
- ItemOpen Access7-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime induces caspase-independent cell death(Nature Publishing Group, 2006) Ribas i Fortuny, Judit; Bettayeb, Karima; Ferandin, Yoan; Knockaert, Marie; Garrofé Ochoa, Xènia; Totzke, Frank; Schächtele, Christoph; Mester, Jan; Polychronopoulos, Panagiotis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Boix Torras, Jacint; Meijer, LaurentIndirubin, an isomer of indigo, is a reported inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) as well as an agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Indirubin is the active ingredient of a traditional Chinese medicinal recipe used against chronic myelocytic leukemia. Numerous indirubin analogs have been synthesized to optimize this promising kinase inhibitor scaffold. We report here on the cellular effects of 7-bromoindirubin-3'-oxime (7BIO). In contrast to its 5-bromo- and 6-bromo- isomers, and to indirubin-3'-oxime, 7BIO has only a marginal inhibitory activity towards CDKs and GSK-3. Unexpectedly, 7BIO triggers a rapid cell death process distinct from apoptosis. 7-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime induces the appearance of large pycnotic nuclei, without classical features of apoptosis such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. 7-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime-induced cell death is not accompanied by cytochrome c release neither by any measurable effector caspase activation. Furthermore, the death process is not altered either by the presence of Q-VD-OPh, a broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, or the overexpression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins. Neither AhR nor p53 is required during 7BIO-induced cell death. Thus, in contrast to previously described indirubins, 7BIO triggers the activation of non-apoptotic cell death, possibly through necroptosis or autophagy. Although their molecular targets remain to be identified, 7-substituted indirubins may constitute a new class of potential antitumor compounds that would retain their activity in cells refractory to apoptosis.
- ItemOpen Access7-Bromoindirubin-3'-oxime uncovers a serine protease-mediated paradigm of necrotic cell death(Elsevier, 2008) Ribas i Fortuny, Judit; Yuste Mateos, Víctor J. (Víctor José); Garrofé Ochoa, Xènia; Meijer, Laurent; Esquerda Colell, Josep; Boix Torras, JacintThe new 7-bromoindirubin-3′-oxime (7BIO) compound induces caspase-independent cell death in all cell lines tested to date. Irrespective of the cell line, a 25 μM treatment for 24 h is lethal for the entire cell population. In SH-SY5Y and Jurkat cells, 7BIO (25 μM) was found to collapse the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) at only 2-3 h of treatment. Concomitantly mitochondria swelled, cristae disrupted and, after 9 h, external cell membranes ruptured. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum dilated and, unexpectedly, the acute cytoplasmic destruction yielded isolated nuclei with preserved morphology and DNA integrity. Furthermore, the process was independent of both Bax and Bak, since cell viability and ΔΨm decayed indistinguishably in double Bax−/−Bak−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and their wild type counterparts. Pharmacological inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) did not prevent 7BIO-induced ΔΨm loss in none of the aforementioned cell lines. Caspase-independent inducers of cell death like AIF (Apoptosis Inducing Factor), cathepsins and calpains were not involved. Only the chemical inhibitors of serine proteases and, particularly, AEBSF afforded a significant protection thus suggesting a process regulated by this type of enzymes. As far as we know, these features are quite unique once taken together. Therefore, we propose 7BIO is triggering a specific type of necrotic cell death. Finally, the cytotoxicity of 7BIO on apoptosis-resistant cells like double Bax−/−Bak−/− MEFs seems of great interest envisaging cancer therapy.
- ItemOpen Access7-dehydrocholesterol efficiently supports Ret signaling in a mouse model of Smith-Opitz-Lemli syndrome(Nature Publishing Group, 2016) Gou Fàbregas, Myriam; Macià Armengol, Anna; Anerillas Aljama, Carlos; Vaquero, Marta; Jové Font, Mariona; Jain, Sanjay; Ribera i Calvet, Joan; Encinas Martín, MarioSmith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a rare disorder of cholesterol synthesis. Affected individuals exhibit growth failure, intellectual disability and a broad spectrum of developmental malformations. Among them, renal agenesis or hypoplasia, decreased innervation of the gut, and ptosis are consistent with impaired Ret signaling. Ret is a receptor tyrosine kinase that achieves full activity when recruited to lipid rafts. Mice mutant for Ret are born with no kidneys and enteric neurons, and display sympathetic nervous system defects causing ptosis. Since cholesterol is a critical component of lipid rafts, here we tested the hypothesis of whether the cause of the above malformations found in SLOS is defective Ret signaling owing to improper lipid raft composition or function. No defects consistent with decreased Ret signaling were found in newborn Dhcr7−/− mice, or in Dhcr7−/− mice lacking one copy of Ret. Although kidneys from Dhcr7−/− mice showed a mild branching defect in vitro, GDNF was able to support survival and downstream signaling of sympathetic neurons. Consistently, GFRα1 correctly partitioned to lipid rafts in brain tissue. Finally, replacement experiments demonstrated that 7-DHC efficiently supports Ret signaling in vitro. Taken together, our findings do not support a role of Ret signaling in the pathogenesis of SLOS.
- ItemOpen Access7en Obrador de Lingüistica Occitana (Associacion de Lingüistica Occitana; Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munchen, 6-8 de juliol de 2015)(Institut d'Estudis Catalans, 2016) Carrera Baiget, AitorL'associació Lingüistica Occitana, fundada formalment l'any 2004, organitza periòdicament ¿anualment, bianualment o trianual¿ col·loquis que s'interessen per la recerca sobre la llengua occitana, anomenats Obradors de Lingüistica Occitana. Aquests mateixos col·loquis, i concretament el primer que es va celebrar a Nimes l'any 2002 (organitzat per Enric Comis, Arvèi Lieutard i Patric Sauzet), van ser de fet els que van originar l'existència mateixa de l'associació, que s'encarrega de publicar una revista en línia que recull els continguts d'aquelles trobades científiques i altres treballs originals sobre la llengua occitana (que podeu consultar a l'adreça següent: http://revistadoc.com). L'associació, presidida per Gerard-Joan Barceló, compta també amb un comitè de lectura que revisa i valida els textos que cal publicar a la revista (format per Miriam Bras, Jacques Bres, Aitor Carrera, Arvèi Lieutard, Patric Sauzet i Domergue Sumien) i, entre altres projectes, preveu posar a la disposició de tothom un diccionari occità en línia, anomenat Superlexic, que ha de tenir en compte tant les formes referencials generals com les dels diferents estàndards regionals de la llengua de Mistral. Els Obradors atrauen desenes d'investigadors en un ambient que afavoreix especialment l'intercanvi d'idees i el debat sobre aspectes de lingüística occitana (i no pas solament en les sessions de comunicacions), i fins ara han tingut la virtut ¿potser no sempre formulada explícitament¿ d'encoratjar no només la recerca sobre la llengua d'oc (i de presentar sovint les principals novetats que hi fan referència en el període que va d'un congrés de l'AEIO a un altre), sinó específicament la investigació sobre l'occità feta també en occità, com pot comprovar qualsevol navegant que visiti la pàgina web de l'associació.