Browsing Articles publicats (Grup de Recerca en Malherbologia i Ecologia Vegetal) by Title
Now showing 1 - 20 of 69
Results Per Page
- ItemOpen AccessA germination study of herbicide-resistant field poppies in Spain(EDP Sciences, 2008) Cirujeda Ranzenberger, Alicia; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Torra Farré, Joel; Taberner Palou, AndreuField poppy, Papaver rhoeas L., is a very common weed in winter cereals in North-Eastern Spain. Its control is becoming difficult due to expanding herbicide resistance. To control field poppies there are alternative strategies such as non-chemical control that take into account the weed emergence period. However, there is a lack of knowledge of P. rhoeas emergence patterns in semi-arid conditions. Thus, here we conducted pot experiments on the emergence of P. rhoeas. We aimed to describe the emergence period and to quantify the emergence of a susceptible and of a herbicide-resistant P. rhoeas population at two locations in Catalonia, Spain, from 1998 to 2001 and until 2004 at one of them. Therefore, pots containing seeds of both populations were established at the two locations and emergence was recorded monthly. We studied the origin of the population, the sowing location, the effect of cultivation and the sowing year. First, we found that the main emergence peaks in our experiments occurred in autumn, accounting for between 65.7 and 98.5% of the annual emergence from October to December, and only little emergence was recorded in spring. This emergence pattern is different from those found in the literature corresponding to Northern European countries, where in some cases main flushes occur only in autumn, in spring and winter or only in spring. The emergence was mainly affected by cultivation, but the effect of light stimulus was observed several months later. As a consequence, cultivation should be done in early autumn, promoting emergence during the whole autumn and winter so that emerged seedlings can be controlled before sowing a spring crop. Second, most experiments showed that the emergence was significantly higher in the first autumn than in the following seasons, e.g. 4.1% emergence in the first year and only 2.1, 2.3, 0.5 and 0.6% new emergence at one of the locations for the second, third, fourth and fifth years. Thus, after having a severe P. rhoeas infestation causing a big seed rain, emergence should be stimulated by autumn cultivation in the following season and seedlings controlled by trying to deplete the soil seed bank as much as possible. Despite the fact that emergence will be staggered throughout several years and that there was a significant relationship between rainfall and emergence, so that dry years will cause a smaller emergence rate of the weed, these findings define a cultural management strategy to reduce P. rhoeas infestations and to contribute to integrated weed management strategies combining it with other tools.
- ItemOpen AccessA survey of Lolium rigidum populations in citrus orchards: Factors explaining infestation levels(Weed Science Society of Japan, 2015) Atanackovic, Valentina; Juárez Escario, Alejandro; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Torra Farré, JoelThe presence of herbicide-resistant Lolium rigidum in Mediterranean (Spanish) citrus orchards was reported in 2005 and it poses a serious threat to crop management. The main objective of this research was to investigate which components could be responsible for the persistence of annual ryegrass populations in Mediterranean mandarin and orange orchards. This is the ﬁrst study regarding L. rigidum populations in Mediterranean citrus orchards. Surveys were con- ducted in 55 commercial citrus orchards in eastern Spain in 2013 by interviewing technicians who were working in cooperatives about crop management. The level of infestation by L. rigidum and the presence of harvester ants (Messor barbarus) then were estimated in the same orchards. The variables were subjected to a two-dimensional analysis and both univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were ﬁtted for each of the three L. rigidum density levels that had been established. The multivariate models showed the signiﬁcant factors that were associated with various L. rigidum densities: (i) at a low density, the herbicides that were applied, the number of applications in 2013 and the type of irrigation (ﬂood or drip); (ii) at a medium density, the presence of harvester ants; and (iii) at a high density, the herbicides that were applied in 2013. The results indicated that drip irrigation and one application of glyphosate mixed with other herbicides (or herbicides other than glyphosate) were associated with a lower L. rigidum density. The alternative management options that are presented here should help farmers to reduce weed problems in Mediterranean citrus orchards. Future research is required to better understand the presence of herbicide-resistant populations, as well as the possible beneﬁcial presence of granivorous ant species.
- ItemOpen AccessAccumulation of target gene mutations confers multiple resistance to ALS, ACCase and EPSPS inhibitors in Lolium species in Chile(Frontiers Media, 2020-10-28) Vázquez-García, José G.; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Palma-Bautista, Candelario; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Torra Farré, Joel; Barro, Francisco; Prado, Rafael deDifferent Lolium species, common weeds in cereal fields and fruit orchards in Chile, were reported showing isolated resistance to the acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase), acetolactate synthase (ALS) and 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) inhibiting herbicides in the late 1990s. The first case of multiple resistance to these herbicides was Lolium multiflorum found in spring barley in 2007. We hypothesized that other Lolium species may have evolved multiple resistance. In this study, we characterised the multiple resistance to glyphosate, diclofop-methyl and iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium in Lolium rigidum, Lolium perenne and Lolium multiflorum resistant (R) populations from Chile collected in cereal fields. Lolium spp. populations were confirmed by AFLP analysis to be L. rigidum, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. Dose-response assays confirmed multiple resistance to glyphosate, diclofop-methyl and iodosulfuron methyl-sodium in the three species. Enzyme activity assays (ACCase, ALS and EPSPS) suggested that the multiple resistance of the three Lolium spp. was caused by target site mechanisms, except the resistance to iodosulfuron in the R L. perenne population. The target site genes sequencing revealed that the R L. multiflorum population presented the Pro-106-Ser/Ala (EPSPS), Ile-2041-Asn+Asp-2078-Gly (ACCase), and Trp-574-Leu (ALS) mutations; and the R L. rigidum population had the Pro-106-Ser (EPSPS), Ile-1781-Leu+Asp-2078-Gly (ACCase) and Pro-197-Ser/Gln+Trp-574-Leu (ALS) mutations. Alternatively, the R L. perenne population showed only the Asp-2078-Gly (ACCase) mutation, while glyphosate resistance could be due to EPSPS gene amplification (no mutations but high basal enzyme activity), whereas iodosulfuron resistance presumably could involve non-target site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms. These results support that the accumulation of target site mutations confers multiple resistance to the ACCase, ALS and EPSPS inhibitors in L. multiflorum and L. rigidum from Chile, while in L. perenne, both target and NTSR could be present. Multiple resistance to three herbicide groups in three different species of the genus Lolium in South America represents a significant management challenge.
- ItemOpen AccessAmaranthus palmeri a New Invasive Weed in Spain with Herbicide Resistant Biotypes(MDPI, 2020-07-10) Torra Farré, Joel; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Romano, Yolanda; Osuna, Maria D.; León, Ramón G.; Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiAmaranthus palmeri is the most prominent invasive weed in agricultural land from North America, partly due to its propensity to evolve resistance to multiple herbicide sites of action. In the last two decades, reports of this species have increased throughout the American continent and occasionally in other continents. In 2007, A. palmeri populations were found in three localities in northeastern Spain, and they are still present today. To determine whether these three populations resulted from a common or independent introduction events¿and when and from where they could have occurred¿research was carried out aiming to characterize the resistance profile and mechanisms to 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase-and acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides and to analyze the relationship between these three populations using inter simple sequence repeat DNA fingerprinting. Dose-response trials confirmed that the three populations were susceptible to glyphosate but resistant to nicosulfuron-methyl. Resistance to ALS inhibitors was due to several amino acid substitutions in positions Pro197, Trp574 and Ser653. Moreover, the substitutions Ser653Ile and Pro197Thr are described for the first time in this species. At field-labeled rates, all populations were fully controlled with alternative herbicides with other sites of action. Amaranthus palmeri individuals were clustered in three groups based on unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean analysis, which corresponded to the three sampled populations, with a 67% of genetic relationship among them. Considering this high genetic variability and the different positions and amino acid substations found between populations, it was hypothesized that different colonization events occurred from the American continent probably prior to the introduction of glyphosate resistant crops. Prevention from new introductions is warranted because new herbicide resistance traits could arrive, complicating the management of this invasive weed species, while managing or eradicating the already established populations.
- ItemOpen AccessAmaranthus palmeri: Una seria amenaza de nuestros campos de maíz(Phytoma-España, 2020) Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiAmaranthus palmeri S. Watson es una especie infestante de los cultivos de soja y algodón de la zona meridional de Estados Unidos y norte de México. Su nocividad se ha visto agravada por su alta capa-cidad competitiva y por su capacidad de desarrollar biotipos con resistencia a distintos herbicidas. En las últimas décadas, esta especie ha mostrado una rápida expansión por otras zonas de América del Norte y por otros países de América del Sur, donde constituye uno de los principales problemas en soja y maíz y, de manera especial, en cultivos transgénicos, donde ha desarrollado biotipos resisten-tes a glifosato. En el año 2007 se observó la presencia de esta especie en zonas ruderales de Lleida y, de forma más reciente (2016), en varios campos de maíz de las provincias de Lleida y Huesca donde su presencia constituye una seria amenaza para la sanidad de este cultivo. Se cree que su presencia es consecuencia de continuas introducciones a partir de la importación de grano o harina, de maíz o soja, para piensos. Los Servicios de Sanidad Vegetal de las Consejerías de Cataluña y Aragón han elaborado medidas y recomendaciones para su contención y control.
- ItemOpen AccessAnalysing spatial correlation of weeds and harvester ants in cereal fields using point processes(Springer Verlag, 2016) Comas Rodríguez, Carles; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Torra Farré, JoelThe interaction between the spatial distribution of weed richness and weed cover and the spatial location of harvester ant nets was investigated in cereal fields. The understanding of such interdependencies can be relevant to understand weed population dynamics in dryland cereal fields and may enhance management strategies for weed control. We used spatial statistical tools derived from point process theory. In particular, we compared the two spatial configurations by assuming two different point patterns. We did so by replacing the random weed fields by a related point pattern and comparing it with the point pattern of harvester ants. Our results suggest that areas with a high density of ant nests are, in this case study, in areas with low weed richness and that large nests have a greater impact than small nests. Considering that only one field was analysed, preserving and enhancing regular ant nest distributions, especially of large nests, might have an impact on depleting weeds and consequently enhancing weed control.
- ItemOpen AccessAspectos de la dispersión y viabilidad de las semillas de teosinte (Zea mays ssp.) en el Valle del Ebro(Asociación Interprofesional para el Desarrollo Agrario, 2020-09) Montull Daniel, José María; Pardo, Gabriel; Aibar, J.; Llenes, J. M.; Marí, A. I.; Taberner Palou, Andreu; Cirujeda Ranzenberger, AliciaUna de las principales preocupaciones asociadas a la aparición de una nueva mala hierba invasora es la de evitar su expansión. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre las posibles vías de dispersión de teosinte (Zea mays ssp.) detectado en el Noreste de España en 2014. Se ha estudiado la distribución de los individuos de esta especie dentro de campos de maíz, así como la viabilidad de sus semillas después del proceso de molienda para pienso y en función de su tiempo de permanencia en purines de porcino y vacuno. Después de analizar la distribución de teosinte en 153 campos en Aragón y Cataluña, se ha encontrado que un 66,3 % de las parcelas han sido probablemente infestadas a través de las cosechadoras, confirmando que ésta es la principal vía de dispersión. La viabilidad de las semillas durante la molturación fue nula utilizando molinos con una criba de 5 y 2,5 mm de diámetro (las comúnmente empleadas para la fabricación de pienso) aunque quedó viable un 2,6 % de las semillas cuando se utilizó una criba de 8 mm. Por último, el ajuste de los datos al modelo log-logistico indica que el tiempo de supervivencia medio de las semillas es de 11,1 y 16,4 días en purín de porcino y vacuno, respectivamente, y su nula viabilidad ocurre a los 15,7 días en porcino y 37,4 días en vacuno. Por tanto, hay que esperar al menos ese tiempo antes de esparcir ambos purines en zonas con infestaciones de teosinte.
- ItemRestrictedBuilding bridges: an integrated strategy for sustainable food production throughout the value chain(Springer, 2013) Albajes Garcia, Ramon; Cantero-Martínez, Carlos; Capell Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul; Farré Martinez, Alba; Galceran i Nogués, Josep; López Gatius, Fernando; Marín Sillué, Sònia; Martín Belloso, Olga; Motilva Casado, Mª José; Nogareda, Carmina; Pemán García, Jesús; Puy Llorens, Jaume; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Romagosa Clariana, Ignacio; Romero Fabregat, Mª Paz; Sanchís Almenar, Vicente; Savin, Roxana; Slafer, Gustavo A.; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert; Viñas Almenar, Inmaculada; Voltas Velasco, JordiThe food production and processing value chain is under pressure from all sides-increasing demand driven by a growing and more affluent population; dwindling resources caused by urbanization, land erosion, pollution and competing agriculture such as biofuels; and increasing constraints on production methods driven by consumers and regulators demanding higher quality, reduced chemical use, and most of all environmentally beneficial practices 'from farm to fork'. This pressure can only be addressed by developing efficient and sustainable agricultural practices that are harmonized throughout the value chain, so that renewable resources can be exploited without damaging the environment. Bridges must, therefore, be built between the diverse areas within the food production and processing value chain, including bridges between different stages of production, between currently unlinked agronomic practices, and between the different levels and areas of research to achieve joined-up thinking within the industry, so that the wider impact of different technologies, practices and materials on productivity and sustainability is understood at the local, regional, national and global scales. In this article, we consider the challenges at different stages and levels of the value chain and how new technologies and strategies could be used to build bridges and achieve more sustainable food/feed production in the future.
- ItemOpen AccessCamelina as rotation crop for weed control in organic farming in a semi-arid Mediterranean climate(MDPI, 2018-10-24) Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Valencia-Gredilla, FranciscoCrop rotation in winter cereals in semiarid Mediterranean climates is highly desirable to prevent weed infestations, but the climatic conditions make it difficult to implement alternative crops to winter cereals. Camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) is an interesting option, as it is able to produce profitable yields thanks to its tolerance to cold and drought. In this work, three autumn-winter sowing dates (SD1, October; SD2, December; SD3, January) and two sowing rates (R1, 8 kg ha1; R2, 11 kg ha1) were chosen to evaluate the effectiveness of these cultural methods to control weeds over three seasons, and to determine effects on camelina seed yield. Results showed that a significant reduction of weed coverage was obtained by delaying the sowing date. Sowing rates did not show differences in weed coverage. In contrast, no apparent yield penalty was observed among sowing dates and rates. These results show that the introduction of camelina as a rotational crop in semiarid Mediterranean climates is a feasible option for helping to suppress winter weeds, as well as to provide productive seed yield in these climatic conditions.
- ItemOpen AccessCharacterisation of emergence of autumn and spring cohorts of Galium spp. in winter cereals(European Weed Research Society, 2010) Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Torra Farré, Joel; Conesa i Mor, Josep A. (Josep Antoni); Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiThe emergence of three artificial cohorts of Galium aparine, G. spurium and G. tricornutum with different accessions was studied over two years under the climatic conditions of north-eastern Spain. Seeds were sown in November (first cohort), January (second cohort) and February (third cohort). Higher and lower emergence percentages were obtained in the first and third cohorts, when fresher winter and dry spring occurred. However, this tendency changed when the spring was wet and emergence of third cohorts was more than that of the first. Results suggest that low temperatures in winter break the dormancy of these species, that soil moisture promotes the germination and emergence of these weeds and that emergence is highly influenced by dormancy levels during winter and spring. Lack of rain does not allow spring germination, hence, application of herbicides to control spring cohorts is not necessary.
- ItemOpen AccessConyza, un género de malas hierbas problemáticas y de difícil control(Eumedia, 2023-10) Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Montull Daniel, José María; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Conesa i Mor, Josep A. (Josep Antoni)
- ItemOpen AccessCorrection: Royo-Esnal, A. and Valencia-Gredilla, F. Camelina as a Rotation Crop for Weed Control in Organic Farming in a Semiarid Mediterranean Climate. Agriculture 2018, 8(10), 156(MDPI, 2019-09-04) Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Valencia-Gredilla, Francisco
- ItemOpen AccessDescribing Polygonum aviculare emergence in different tillage systems(European Weed Research Society, 2015) Royo-Esnal, Aritz; García, Addy Laura; Torra Farré, Joel; Forcella, Frank; Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiEffects of four tillage systems (direct drill, subsoiler, chisel plough and mouldboard plough) on the dynamics of Polygonum aviculare populations were studied over three growing seasons. Cumulative emergence on a weekly basis was determined. Cumulative emergence from two years of chisel ploughing was used to develop an emergence model for P. aviculare based on hydrothermal time. Results showed that direct drilling, which had the highest seed yields of winter cereal crops every season, was the unique soil management system that lowered P. aviculare populations because of effective weed emergence reduction. The model accurately described seedling emergence in different tillage systems, although it failed in direct drilling, probably due to very low numbers of emerged seedlings. To better control this weed, direct drilling may be the best tillage option, but if this cannot be implemented, the hydrothermal time model is a practical tool that can describe the relative proportions of emergence and assist in the timing for management operations of P. aviculare in different tillage systems.
- ItemOpen AccessDifferent Ground Vegetation Cover Management Systems to Manage Cynodon dactylon in an Irrigated Vineyard(MDPI, 2020-06-25) Valencia-Gredilla, Francisco; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Juárez Escario, Alejandro; Recasens i Guinjuan, JordiGround cover management in vineyards in Spain is focused on minimizing soil erosion and compaction. Such practices have influenced the weed community structure in the inter-rows, contributing to the spread of the high noxious weed Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. This fact highlights the need for further investigation of the interaction between ground cover practices and weed control techniques. In this study, the effect of four different ground cover managements (M) in the inter-rows on C. dactylon population dynamics (changes in coverage and frequency) was assessed over three seasons (2015–2017): (M1) a no-till spontaneous vegetation ground cover managed by shredding; (M2) a no-till spontaneous vegetation ground cover managed by shredding plus herbicide application, (M3) tilled soil and spontaneous vegetation growing; and (M4) tilled soil and a barley cover crop seeded (Hordeum vulgare L.). Cynodon dactylon and the other weeds responded differently to the various weed control methods. After three seasons, the barley cover crop was the most efficient management system to control C. dactylon and other weeds. Final soil cover in barley cover crop and tilled soil with spontaneous vegetation were 0.5% and 1.1%, respectively, compared to 3.7% and 7.7% obtained by spontaneous vegetation shredded with and without herbicide application, respectively. In addition, total weed frequency varied from 9.7% for barley cover crop to 45.8% for spontaneous vegetation only shredded. Weed community composition changed due to the pressure exerted by each management and the adaptive strategy of the different species. This study highlights the importance of knowledge of how vegetation management influences weed flora to improve the sustainability of wine grape production systems.
- ItemOpen AccessDistribution of Glyphosate-Resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli Across Agriculture Areas in the Iberian Peninsula(Frontiers Media, 2021-02-12) Vázquez-García, José G.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Torra Farré, Joel; Dellaferrera, Ignacio; Portugal, João M.; Prado, Rafael deThe levels of resistance to glyphosate of 13 barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli) populations harvested across different agriculture areas in the Southern Iberian Peninsula were determined in greenhouse and laboratory experiments. Shikimate accumulation fast screening separated the populations regarding resistance to glyphosate: susceptible (S) E2, E3, E4, and E6 and resistant (R) E1, E5, E7, E8, E9, E10, E11, E12, and E13. However, resistance factor (GR50 E1–E13/GR50 E6) values separated these populations into three groups: (S) E2, E3, E4, and E6, (R) E1, E5, E7, E8, and E9, and very resistant (VR) E10, E11, E12, and E13. 14C-glyphosate assays performed on two S populations (E2 and E6) showed greater absorption and translocation than those found for R (E7 and E9) and VR (E10 and E12) populations. No previous population metabolized glyphosate to amino methyl phosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate, except for the E10 population that metabolized 51% to non-toxic products. The VR populations showed two times more 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity without herbicide than the rest, while the inhibition of the EPSPS activity by 50% (I50) required much higher glyphosate in R and VR populations than in S populations. These results indicated that different target-site and non-target-site resistance mechanisms were implicated in the resistance to glyphosate in E. crus-galli. Our results conclude that resistance is independent of climate, type of crop, and geographic region and that the level of glyphosate resistance was mainly due to the selection pressure made by the herbicide on the different populations of E. crus-galli studied.
- ItemOpen AccessEfecto de la fecha de siembra en las malas hierbas en cereales de invierno(Interempresas, 2019-10-07) Montull Daniel, José María; Torra Farré, JoelSe debe tener en cuenta que las malas hierbas son propias de cada parcela y por tanto, se debe de plantear una estrategia de control a medio y largo plazo. Esto implica no solo el cultivo, sino también el manejo del suelo y la fecha de siembra con el objetivo último de que al llegar la cosecha, se reincorpore al banco de semillas del suelo la menor cantidad posible de estas. A grandes rasgos, cuanto más se retrasa la fecha de siembra, menor es la cantidad de plántulas que se desarrollan durante el ciclo de cultivo pero esto depende de cada especie y de la distribución de lluvias durante el otoño. Así, en los otoños de lluvias precoces, no es necesario esperar tanto tiempo a que se hayan producido los flujos de germinación de las diferentes especies.
- ItemOpen AccessEffect of patch size on seed removal by harvester ants(European Weed Research Society, 2016-02) Torra Farré, Joel; Atanackovic, Valentina; Blanco Moreno, J.; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Westerman, Paula RenateThe harvester ant Messor barbarus can be responsible for high weed seed losses in dryland cereals in Spain. Because weeds occur in patches, harvester ants have to be able to find and exploit patches. However, seed patches can differ in size and may, therefore, differ in the probability of being discovered and exploited. Here, 90 patches varying in size from 0.25 to 9 m2 were created in three 50 x 50 m subareas in a cereal field. Oat seeds were sown, as weed seed surrogates, in the patches at 2000 seeds m-2. After 24 h, those remaining were collected and the exploitation rate (the percentage of seeds removed per patch discovered by ants) was estimated. Harvester ant nests and the location of the seed patches were georeferenced and used to estimate distances between them. The patch encounter rate (the proportion of patches discovered by the ants) decreased slightly, but significantly, with decreasing patch size, though not the exploitation rate, which was lowest in the smallest patches (78-94%) and highest in the largest (99-100%). Seed patches that were not found or partially exploited were mostly located in subareas with a lower ant nest density or a longer distance away from the nearest nest than seed patches that were fully exploited. The results of this study indicate that the interaction between the spatial distribution of ant nests and the patchy distribution of seeds can create opportunities for seeds to be subjected to lower levels of predation.
- ItemOpen AccessEffects of crop and weed densities on the interactions between barley and Lolium rigidum in several Mediterranean locations(Institut national de la recherche agronomique (França), 2003) Izquierdo i Figarola, Jordi; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Fernández-Quintanilla, César; Gill, GurjeetThe effects of both barley and Lolium rigidum densities on weed growth and spike production and on crop yield were examined in five field experiments carried out in the Mediterranean drylands of Spain and Western Australia. The aim was to check the consistency of the competitiveness of the crop in different environmental and management conditions. L. rigidum reduced barley yields in most of the experiments (between 0 and 85%), the number of ears per m2 being the most affected. It was found that increasing the barley seeding rate did not reduce the crop losses but did limit weed biomass (between 5 and 61%) and spike production (between 24 and 85%). The variability observed in crop yield losses between sites and seasons was related to rainfall at the beginning of the season. The most sensitive component of yield to weed competition was the number of ears per plant.
- ItemOpen AccessEfficiency, profitability and carbon footprint of different management programs under no-till to control herbicide resistant Papaver rhoeas(MDPI, 2020-04-01) Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Valencia-Gredilla, Francisco; Torra Farré, JoelThe present work examines the effects of different integrated weed management (IWM) programs on multiple herbicide-resistant Papaver rhoeas populations in terms of effectiveness, profitability and carbon footprint. With this aim a trial was established in a winter cereal field under no-till in North-Eastern Spain during three consecutive seasons. Four IWM programs with different intensification levels, from less (crop rotation, mechanical control, and no herbicides) to more intense (wheat monoculture with high chemical inputs), were established. The different strategies integrated in the four programs were efficient in managing the weed after three years, with increased effectiveness after management program intensification. Whereas low input program (which includes fallow season) represented less economic cost than the other programs, on average, no differences were observed on carbon foot print, considered as kg CO2eq kg−1 product, between the different programs, except in the crop rotation program due to the low pea yield obtained. The results from this study show that in the search for a balance between crop profitability and reduction of the carbon footprint while controlling an herbicide resistant population is challenging, and particularly under notill. In this scenario the short term priority should be to reduce the presence of multiple herbicide resistant biotypes integrating the different available chemical, cultural, and physical strategies.
- ItemOpen AccessEl cultiu de camelina(IRTA, 2021) Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Codina-Pascual, N.La camelina (Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz) és un cultiu oleaginós conegut i cultivat des de l'Edat de Bronze que va ser reemplaçat per altres cultius més productius cap al segle XVI. Des de fa uns anys, però, i a causa de la necessitat de trobar cultius alternatius que aportin matèria primera per diversos usos, la camelina ha tornat a sobresortir. A més el seu cultiu presenta un interès per formar part de les rotacions de cultius herbacis de secà. Aquest interès no és en va, ja que, per un costat, l'oli produït per aquesta planta es pot utilitzar amb diferents finalitats, des del consum humà i animal fins a la producció de biodièsel, passant per altres usos industrials com la fabricació de pintures i vernissos o, fins i tot, en la indústria cosmètica. Altrament, el tortó de camelina, ric en proteïna, antioxidants i àcid grassos saludables s'utilitza en l'alimentació de truites i gallines (entre altres bestiars), per enriquir la carn dels primers i els ous dels segons amb omega-3. A més, les llavors tenen un contingut de mucílag d'entre un 7% i un 15%, essent una potencial font d'aquest producte per l'ús medicinal i alimentari.