Browsing Any: 2015 Núm.: 9 by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessWar and taxation. The soldadas from the reign of Alfonso VIII of castile to the 13th century(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Estepa, CarlosThis paper examines the issue of the soldadas (salaries or stipends) from the kingdom of Alfonso VIII onwards, focusing on the testimonies from chronicles, mainly the Crónica Latina de los Reyes de Castilla and De rebus Hispaniae by Rodrigo Jiménez de Rada. The soldadas (stipendia) as cash payments for the knights (milites) are the key element to notice the narrow link between war and taxation. The matter should be framed in the wider question of the growth of royal taxation, which is very important yet in the kingdom of Alfonso VIII. One century later, the Rents from Sancho IV (1290-1292) allow us to deduce the large expanse of the soldadas, for instance in Andalusian cities, as well as the large amounts given to the main nobles (ricos hombres) to be shared among their men.
- ItemOpen AccessMonks and knights in medieval Galicia.The example of the Benedictines of Toxos Outos in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Renzi, FrancescoThe aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between the Benedictine monks of San Justo and Pastor de Toxos Outos and the local military aristocracy of the archdiocese of Santiago de Compostela between the twelfth and the thirteenth centuries. By a comparative study with other monastic realities in Galicia, this work will show the existence of a strong competition between monastic Orders in Galicia and how the Benedictines monks of Toxos Outos were able to cope with the loss of royal and high aristocratic support by shifting their attention to the knightly class. The study of these aspects will also illustrate how monastic sources may be used to study the lower aristocratic groups, their composition, ambitions and development in the north western Iberian Peninsula in the high Middle Ages.
- ItemOpen AccessRhythms in the process of drawing up crusading proposals in the peninsula(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Isla, AmancioThis study presents some of the traits of the new Christian proposals for the legitimation of the war against the Muslims. These elements appeared somewhat earlier in the kingdom of Aragon than in León. This promptness is linked not only with a greater opening to European influences, but also to the need to attract foreign contingents for the conquest. Meanwhile, the Leonese kingdom had assembled a theory of legitimation, based on its claims to links to the Visigoth monarchy, so that it resorted to a greater extent to the crusading register when difficulties arose in the epoch of Alfonso VI, especially from 1086 on
- ItemOpen AccessMedieval soundspace in the new digital leisure time media(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Jiménez Alcázar, Juan Francisco; Rodríguez, GerardoVideogames have become a very important cultural reference in our society, especially for the younger generation. The music, sound effects and noises that appear in them are examples of the general iconography we have of the past, in this case the medieval period. This study presents an approach to this phenomenon that represents one of the best examples to analyse the idea of what we think the Middle Ages was like, and, in particular, its soundscape.
- ItemOpen AccessCarmen: collaboration in the face of contemporary challenges(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Forde, SimonThe CARMEN network was set up after preliminary discussions at the Leeds International Medieval Congress 2006. Participants agreed that there was a need for a European version of the Centers and Regional Associations committee (CARA) of the Medieval Academy of America. It was also agreed that such a project should be open and global, and modelled on an informal network as opposed to some formal academy or learned society. This paper assesses how successful CARMEN has been in achieving its stated or implicit goals from eight years ago, in particular: 1. generating research funding for medievalists, 2. learning from each other and sharing best practice, 3. creating a global platform for medieval centres and national associations, 4. becoming a sustainable network.
- ItemOpen AccessTeleology, natural desire and knowledge of God in the Summa contra gentiles(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Contreras, Sebastián; García-Huidobro, JoaquínTeleological reasoning was common among authors of the XIII century. Certainly, the existence of a finalist order among things allowed them to explain both the movement of natural bodies and the movement of the celestial bodies: for these authors all things would move because of final causality. Aquinas’ Summa contra gentiles, which we analyze in the following, reproduces this same reasoning model. Taking as reference the movement of natural bodies, he tries to explain the meaning of a special category of movement, namely: human knowledge. Thus, he states that human knowledge is an expression of a natural appetite of our intelligence, the natural desire to know, which rests only in the knowledge of God, the first cause of the world.
- ItemOpen AccessMedieval studies in Chile. Review of their formation and publications(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Rojas Donat, LuisThe article presents a review of medieval studies in Chile, in first place explains that we are located in a very distant position geographically speaking, which determines the point of view that we have of European issues. Also requires the epistemological perspective that explores the diverse subjects of medieval history, in accordance with the general and the specific view. Since the 1950’s decade, at the University of Chile, medieval studies have been created, and the diversification is produced at the end of the century, not only in Chilean universities located in Santiago but also in provinces. Followed by the creation of the Chilean Society of Medieval Studies and at last a bibliographic Appendix of the main papers published by the Chilean medievalists
- ItemOpen AccessHoly War, Crusade and "Reconquista" in recent anglo-american historiography about the Iberian Peninsula(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Laliena, CarlosIn contemporary Western societies, who are going through a neo-romantic stage, the Crusades have led to an immense literature and a remarkable popularity. In the scientific field, this phenomenon has encouraged the debate on the ideological and cultural issues surrounding Crusade. Since that in the Iberian Peninsula had developed fights between Muslims and Christians before 1096, it is inevitable that historians have wondered about the influence of the reconquest in the origins of the crusading movement. In this paper, we critized the widespread view among Anglo-Saxon historians, according to which secular piety and spirituality were instrumental in the development of the First Crusade, and struggles carried out in the Iberian Peninsula did not influence in the extraordinary adhesion of the European nobles to this issue. In addition, other concepts that may help to explain the intensity of the response, such as “aristocratic networks,” and at the same time help to understand the weight of the Hispanic experience in this movement.
- ItemOpen AccessThe role of eucharisty in the making of an ecclesiology according to Haimo of Auxerre's commentary on I Cor(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Hernández, AlfonsoCarolingian biblical exegesis presents itself as a synthesis of exegetical and theological patristic tradition in order to make it affordable to the Christians of that time. The result of that process are interpretations of biblical texts that can be considered new, though based on the texts of the Fathers. Among them it is possible to find images of the Church containing ideas about power or how to govern and to order society. This paper studies Haimo of Auxerre’s commentary on I Cor 12, 12 et seq in order to establish the author’s concept of ’body of Christ’, in the context of the Eucharistic controversy of the ninth century. It also studies the ideological consequences of his exegesis.
- ItemOpen AccessWars in 12th century Catalonia. Aristocracy and political leadership(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Bonet, MariaFeudal wars and wars of conquest were characteristic conflicts in Catalonia in the 12th century and led to a consolidation of the aristocratic military and political leaders. Among these, the highest power was the count or the king, who extended his domination and led the process of expansion through such novel formulae as pacification, the formation of armies and pacts with foreign leaders. The counts and the king used military agents from outside the regional aristocratic interests, implemented new military policies and found ideological or legislative resources to support their pre-eminence in military deployment. The rise of the cities, the towns and the defence or occupation of the conquered frontiers contributed to the reformulation of the military system, which broke the almost exclusive hold of the noble families on military activity. However, the members of the latter ruled and fought in regional settings, focussing their military activity on the defending and acquiring patrimony, as well as on establishing their jurisdiction. The concepts of heritagisation, dominating and fighting were assimilated into a single reality, and even became interchangeable. Meanwhile, conquests guided by providence placed the “inevitability” of the conquest, acquisition or “liberation” of al-Andalus on another plane.
- ItemOpen AccessThe war in Leon and Castile (Ca. 1110-1130). Internal crisis and imaginary of violence(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Martínez Sopena, PascualThis article deals with an aspect of the deep social crisis occurred in Leon and Castile during the time of Queen Urraca (regnante 1109-1126), the heir of Alfonso VI (regnante 1066/1072-1109). It was a period of war, which even continued after the death of the queen, during the first years of the reign of her son and heir, Alfonso VII (regnante, 1126-1157). The paper does not aim to describe the course of a war in the 12th century. It asks, however, questions about the dynamics of the war. To do so, we look at its material, social and symbolic items throughout a series of pictures from various sources.
- ItemOpen AccessThe role of the Batlle General and Acquafredda Castle in late 14th century Regnum Sardiniae(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Cioppi, AlessandraThe present study analyzes the defense and supplies to Acquafredda the CatalanAragonese fortress in southern Sardinia survived in the end of the fourteenth century to the attacks of the troops Arborea. Crucial in this context is the role assumed by the general batlle Regnum Sardiniae, whose institutional prerogatives of director and head of the royal heritage mix up with political, management and defense functions of the Sardinian-Catalan kingdom, on the edge of collapse.
- ItemOpen AccessAfter the 12th century: war and legal order (or, of historiography and its chimeras)(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Devís, FedericoThe publication in 2009 of John Watts’s The Making of Polities renewed interest not only in the causal relation that is habitually taken for granted nowadays between war and the development of state institutions in the late medieval centuries (a question about which recent English historiography has produced other works of enormous interest), but also in the appropriateness of state categories to think about the changes that, driven by war or not, took place then in the field of the forms of political organisation of Western Europe. This paper looks at the the historiographic origins and development of the state-centred model of explaining those changes, and then explores (especially as regards the evolution of the idea of war itself) the potential for a jurisdictionalist model which, through a more contextualized reading of sources and closer attention to its long-term deployment since the 12th century, has been reconstructing the recent legal and related historiographies from, especially, southern European countries.
- ItemOpen AccessEveryday life in medieval portugal: a historiographic overview(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Cruz Coelho, Maria Helena daThe historiographic overview presented begins with a very early book written in the 1960s by Antonio Henrique de Oliveira Marques, A Sociedade Medieval Portuguesa. Aspectos da Vida Quotidiana (Portuguese Medieval Society. Aspects of Everyday Life) and ends with the collective work published in 2012, História da Vida Privada em Portugal (A History of Private Life in Portugal), the first volume of which focuses on the Middle Ages. We seek to chart a course between these two milestones, setting out developments in studies of economic, social, religious and cultural history and the history of mentalities that have dealt with aspects of everyday life: the home, the dining table and other forms of conviviality, in more rural or urban environments; work days and festive occasions; devotions, religiosity and death; and family, women and children.
- ItemOpen AccessThe catalan-aragonese expedition to Tolouse and the submission of Nice and Forcauquier (1175-1177): A before and after in the course of the Great Occitan War(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2015) Benito i Monclús, PereThe paper offers a historiographical revision of one of the less known episodes of the Great Occitan War: the expedition led by Alfonso the Cast in 1175 against the county of Toulouse. This action took place before a huge military campaign finished in 1177 with the submission of Niza and the county of Forcauquier, and it was a turning point in the Great Occitan War according its characteristics, duration and geographical extension (which was similar to the entity and duration of the campaigns that James I held in Mallorca and Valence in 13th century), as well as its territorial and politico-administrative incidence in the Crown of Aragon