Browsing Any: 2022 Núm.: 16 by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessHellenism and Models of Rhetoric in the Birth of Islamic Historiography(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Melo Carrasco, Diego; Marín R., JoséAfter an overview of the Near East and the Fertile Crescent as a liminal (border) space where cultural transgressions and exchanges take place, this study aims to show how Hellenistic influences were present in the formation of Arab-Islamic historiography. We argue that the latter incorporated rhetorical and methodological notions already installed in the late Mediterranean and added them to strictly Semitic traditions. The interaction of two ‘parallel’ cultural worlds —the Hellenistic and the Islamic— is detected in the rhetorical uses expressed in historiographic production. The culmination of this process is exemplified in Al-Tabari.
- ItemOpen Access‘The Myth of the Primitive Aborigen’. History against Fiction around the Feudal Colonisation of the Kingdom of Valencia in the Thirteenth Century(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Guinot Rodríguez, EnricDenial and conspiracy theorist ideas also find room in the field of history. This is what we today call pseudo-history, which is generally undertaken by people without methodological training in the historical field and often inspired by political and/or religious prejudice. This article examines the arguments presented by a non-academic pseudo-historical trend in Valencia, which denies the process of migration, repopulation and colonisation of the Kingdom of Valencia, founded by King James I in the 13th century, after the conquest of Sarq al Andalus by Catalonia and Aragon. They argue for the social, human, cultural and linguistic continuity of a ‘Valencian people and language’ dating back to the Iberian and Roman periods, which during the Andalusi period remained as a ‘Mozarab’ majority that acted as a transmission belt for this Christian people and language to the 21st century. The text examines two works written by different authors, and flags out their inconsistencies, lack of basic knowledge of medieval history and frequent internal contradictions, and emphasises the total lack of evidence, both written and archaeological, for their arguments, which are as a rule dismissed with expressions such as ‘it is easier to think that…’
- ItemOpen AccessSeeing and Playing the Middle Ages: Problems and Limitations in the Virtual and Video-play Reconstruction of the Medieval Past(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Venegas Ramos, AlbertoThe objective of this article is to study the way in which the medieval past is represented in video games. To do this, it will study three elements: the type of source selected, the playful design and the visuality of the works, along with a large number of examples that illustrate each of the types and subtypes elaborated with the intention of determining how the past is deformed in order to adapt it to a specific form and what potential consequences, favorable or harmful, this deformation can generate for the knowledge and social impact of the past.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Forms of Martyrdom: Elements for the Iconographic Study of the Morocco Protomartyrs in Portugal (Thirteenth-Sixteenth Centuries)(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Pacheco, Milton Pedro DiasThe aim of the current article is to present the latest research endeavors dedicated to the hagiographic formulas from which the Protomartyrs of Morocco main artistic forms were conceived during the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Age in Portugal. Based on the analysis of the main documentary sources and the interpretation of the several artistic collections —mainly composed by reliquaries, paintings, and sculptures— it is possible to gather a set of specific elements to trace the iconographic major themes of the Five Franciscans martyrized in North Africa in 1220. Despite the evolution of devotional manifestations over time, the iconography maintained very conventional procedures, which are still evoked by the Catholic Church.
- ItemOpen AccessFrom Historical Source to Identity Symbol. Julià Ribera and the Edition of the Llibre del Repartiment of Valencia (1929-1939)(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Viciano, PauThe so-called Llibre del Repartiment (Book of Land Division), a record of the donations made by James I of Aragon following the conquest of the kingdom of Valencia, was already considered a fundamental historical source by Valencian historians in the 19th century. The edition made of this document by the archivist Pròsper de Bofarull in 1856 allowed its dissemination until the Arabist Julià Ribera, at the beginning of the twentieth century, highlighted its shortcomings and proposed the production of a new edition of a more scientific nature. In order to obtain the support of local institutions and private patronage, Ribera undertook a real campaign to spread the meaning of the Llibre del Repartiment throughout Valencian society, beyond the circle of historians and scholars. In this sense, the Arabist had to stimulate regionalist sentiment by emphasizing the symbolic dimension of the document as the founding myth of Christian Valencia. In this way, a process of transformation of the Llibre del Repartiment from a historical source to a symbol of identity began, in an unfinished process of mythification that was expanding from the conservative regionalist sphere to the incipient cultural and political Valencianism of the 1930s, until this process was halted by the impact of the Civil War.
- ItemOpen AccessProcessoning with Death Beyond the Middle Ages: Influences of the Dances of Death(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Massip, FrancescWe consider that the late medieval dance of death was based on secular practices that were well established in the popular tradition to accompany the dead in their journey to the afterlife. It would therefore not be an “edifying fiction”, as J.C. Schmitt put it, at least with regard to the ceremonial and the dance practices related to the farewell of the dead. When dealing with the characteristic choreographic form of the dance of death, it is necessary to think of very common figures in the history of dance: the circle and the row. The quintessential medieval dance, the “carola”, combined them both, with abundant iconographic samples throughout Europe. Thus, the “carola” would have functioned as the matrix form of the late medieval dances of death, the last echo of which seems to be hinted at in a dance that has survived for centuries in popular practice: the “contrapàs”. This is corroborated by its solemnity and circumspection.
- ItemOpen AccessThe King-Hamy Chart at the Huntington Library: A Historical Map Made by Battista Agnese(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Van Duzer, ChetThe anonymous manuscript world map known as the King-Hamy chart (San Marino, California, Huntington Library, HM 45) was ascribed a date of c. 1502 by one of its early owners, Ernest Hamy, in 1886, and a similar date has been accepted for the chart ever since. Yet a number of the chart’s features raise questions about this date. In fact, handwriting and other stylistic cues show it to have been made by the prolific Italian cartographer Battista Agnese, active from about 1536 to 1564. Agnese had made some historical maps in his manuscript atlases of the 1550s, and the King-Hamy map is revealed here to be not a map of the world made c. 1502 in the early stages of European expansion, as a historical map made by Agnese to show the image of the world held by Europeans in the early stages of the European expansion.
- ItemOpen AccessThe Castellany Computi and the Accountability of Territorial Officers in Savoy, c. 1260-1370(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Epurescu-Pascovici, IonuţThe present study puts forth a general framework for understanding the first hundred years of castellany accounts (computi) in Savoy. Analysing the computi’s evidence on accounting practice for clues about institutional development, the article traces the subtle shifts in the priorities of Savoyard accountability: prescriptive (concerned with the definition and preservation of the count’s rights and patrimony), financial (controlling the flow of money through different local and centralised accounts), and administrative (overseeing castellans’ governance of the territories). The article clarifies the nature of the Savoyard financial and administrative audits and argues that the fourteenth-century drive towards administrative professionalisation was a response to castellans’ increased autonomy as the dynasty’s creditors and partners in the Savoyard political project.
- ItemOpen AccessJames II and his Artistic Patronage in Santes Creus: Purposes, Semantic Content and the Influence of Frederick II(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Serrano Coll, MartaThis study analyses two of the great artistic projects that James II the Just (1291-1327) promoted at the Cistercian monastery of Santes Creus (Aiguamúrcia, Tarragona, Catalonia, Spain) and which still stand to this day; namely, the dynastic pantheon and the cloister, specifically the unusual south-western pillar adjacent to the Porta Reial (Royal Entrance). The study explains the extent to which both had an aesthetic, persuasive and communicative purpose that was intended to serve the royal rhetoric and how sacredness, lineage and the role of the sovereign as executor of divine providence were key concepts for understanding the totality of these eloquent visual devices. To do this, as I will show, it is essential to examine the influences of Frederick II of Sicily, in particular the legal code known as the Liber Augustalis.
- ItemOpen AccessPolitical Rituals of the Speaking: Blessing and Curse in the Historiography and Law of the Castilian Nobility of the Fourteenth Century (Part I)(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Asiss-González, Federico J.The curse, along with its opposite, the blessing, was not a fictional element, a legend more or less original in Castilian political history. Law and historiography made this topic a key element in his discourses to end up legitimizing one or the other in the struggles for the power of the kingdom in a long period that he understood from the end of the thirteenth century to the beginning of the fifteenth. In this article, we analyze the historiographic and legal texts included in the period from the reign of Alfonso X to that of Alfonso XI in order to understand how these discourses fictionalize this supernatural ritual of the word to build a historical truth functional to your present interests.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Approach to Fishing, Sale and Consumption of Dolphin in the Crown of Aragon (Fourteenth-Fifteenth Centuries)(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Alcover Cateura, Pablo JoséThis paper is the first contribution in Spanish historiography to the study of the role of dolphin in Medieval alimentary habits. It deals with the capture, regulations of trade and consumption, and recipes of Catalan haute cuisine. It is part of a wider research project on selected marine foods in the Crown of Aragon (fourteenth-fifteenth centuries). The role of dolphin meat within different food systems is useful to help understand the consumption patterns of the privileged, because it was a symbol of social distinction.
- ItemOpen AccessFrom Kingdom to Empire. Political Legitimacy Building Strategies at the Court of Alfonso the Magnanimous(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Delle Donne, FulvioAlfonso the Magnanimous (1394-1458) became king of southern Italy in 1443, celebrating a spectacular Triumph. At his court, he gathered around himself the most important intellectuals of the time, from various places, who completely reworked his political consensus building strategies, adapting them to the new ruler’s imperial image. The king’s legitimacy strategies followed multiple paths (possession of virtues and dynastic inheritance), on various levels (rational, traditional and charismatic). The result was the invention of ‘Monarchical Humanism’, a type of Humanism whose salient characteristics were innovative, alternative and totally opposed to, but certainly no less important than, those of the ‘Civil Humanism’ developing elsewhere.
- ItemOpen AccessAndalusian Confraternities at the End of the Middle Ages and the Origin of Penitential Processions(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Pérez González, Silvia María; Arboleda Goldaracena, Juan CarlosIn the first part of this work we define Andalusian brotherhoods and expose their main characteristics. We especially study their social composition and the numerous charitable activities that they developed. Those made them enjoy an indisputable role in the societies in which they were inserted. In a second section, we focus on the analysis of the phenomenon of public discipline. This practice definitely changed the nature and vocation of medieval brotherhoods during the Baroque. We analyze the theological bases of the flagellation and its diffusion through popular religiosity. We illustrate it with two very significant examples, the Brotherhoods of the Blood of Seville and Malaga.
- ItemOpen AccessMedicine and Diet in Castile in the Late Fifteenth Century: the Opúsculo de cozinas, by El Licenciado Antonio (de Tornay)(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Serrano Larráyoz, FernandoThis study is of the text called Opúsculo de cozinas. It was written by a French doctor, residing in Vitoria (northern Spain), and previously the doctor of the Duke of Brittany, at the request of the Duke of Alba. The treatise may be dated to about 1486-1487 and it is related to the illness of the duke, García Álvarez de Toledo, from which he died in 1488, and for whom the doctor, el licenciado Antonio, had previously written a consilium and a regimen sanitatis (health regimen). The brief treatise initially had five parts, but only one of them, the first, survives, on the subject of meat. It is not a cookery book as such, as its title might lead us to believe, in which detailed explanations of culinary procedures are given, but it is a veritable medical and dietary treatise in which the different varieties of meat are spoken about, along with the medicinal properties of certain exotic spices, aromatic herbs and condiments, with which sauces were made for the purpose of improving the digestive properties of certain foods that were inadvisable but necessary on the table of a member of the high nobility. The treatise ends with a brief section devoted to the way of carving different kinds of meat in the French style.
- ItemOpen AccessA Military Assault on a Museum in Catalonia in the Twenty-First Century. Analysis of the Facts in their Context(Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2022) Sabaté, FlocelThe Crown of Aragon, made up of a sum of territories, internally cohesive and institutionally autonomous under a single sovereign and later diluted within different nation-states, has bequeathed a fragmented and dispersed memory. On this basis, the unusual entry of the armed forces into a museum in Catalonia in 2017 under court order, to seize works of art claimed by the neighbouring region of Aragon, encourages an analysis of how the material patrimony and revisionism and distortion of the history of the medieval past of the Crown of Aragon are used, in the 21st century, by the regional authorities to seek cohesion within the region by provoking clashes with the neighbouring one, so breaking bonds of institutional, social and economic collaboration maintained since the 12th century.