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- ItemOpen AccessZoom Interdisciplinari. 4 (2023). Renda bàsica, cap a un dret universal?(Càtedra Obra Social “la Caixa” d’Estudis sobre Desigualtats Socials, 2023) Lladonosa Latorre, Mariona; Roldán, Encarna; Raventós, Daniel; Enciso Rodríguez, Joan Pere; Medina Foussadier, Dolores; Martínez Tinaut, Aida; Castells Casanovas, Guillem; Raventós, Sergi; Garzón Espinosa, EduardoEls textos que apareixen en aquest quart quadern de ZOOM INTERDISCIPLINARI són un recull de les intervencions dels ponents de la Jornada sobre Renda i de la Jornada Emancipació, Joventut i Desigualtats, totes dues organitzades per un grup de professors i professores de la Universitat de Lleida, així com de les aportacions de dos dels membres d’aquest grup. La suma de totes les aportacions suposa una visió general sobre la renda bàsica, una perspectiva multidisciplinària que enriqueix el debat al voltant d’aquesta prestació, que és atractiva en el plantejament i en els objectius, però que alhora constitueix un repte important pels canvis d’orientació política, de gestió administrativa i de cultura socioeconòmica que implicaria. La renda bàsica universal planteja reptes importants a un sistema econòmic neoliberal, però també requereix un gran un canvi de mentalitat, individual i grupal, perquè no estem acostumats que totes les persones rebin una renda pel sol fet de ser ciutadanes. Les interpel·lacions de fons no són fàcils d’acceptar, perquè xoquen amb molts estàndards de pensament, organització i presa de decisions que no es qüestionen, tot i que els resultats que se’n segueixen són perjudicials per a una bona part de la població. D’allò de què no hi ha dubte és que, davant els actuals nivells de desigualtat social, econòmica i cultural, que aboquen un grup no gens menyspreable de la població a la pobresa crònica i a l’exclusió social, i davant el repte que suposa la innovació tecnològica en tots els àmbits de la nostra vida, especialment en el treball, cal plantejar alternatives.
- ItemOpen AccessInfluence of sand proportion in the physical and mechanical properties of construction and building mortars(ALCONPAT Internacional, 2023) Navarrete-Seras, Marco Antonio; Martinez-Molina, Wilfrido; Chavez-Garcia, Hugo Luis; Sanchez-Calvillo, Adrià; Arreola-Sanchez, Mauricio; Borrego-Perez, Jorge Alberto; Perez-Castellanos, Nora Ariadna; Ruiz-Torres, Raul Pavel; Duran-Ramos, Ana Miriam; Alonso Guzmán, Elia MercedesThe influence of sand proportion of in mortars Type II was studied according to the standard N-CMT-2-01-004/02. Three different types of fine aggregates from the region of Morelia, in Michoacan, were used to determine their influence in the physical and mechanical properties. Different cementitious materials (CM): Portland cement plus lime (B1), and Portland cement plus construction cement (B2) were considered and mixed. The mortar mixtures were designed for B1 and B2 with different volume ratios of aggregates/CM, from 2.25 to 4. The characterization determined the fluency, the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and the wet electrical resistivity (WER). Analyzing the fluency and the ratio water/CM it was concluded that the aggregate properties and their proportions modify the water demand in the fresh state of the mortar and consequently the UCS and WER.
- ItemOpen AccessTuber indicum and T. lijiangense colonization differentially regulates plant physiological responses and mycorrhizosphere bacterial community of castanopsis rockii seedlings(Frontiers Media S.A., 2023) Huang, Lanlan; Li, Yongmei; Yuan, Jing; Wan, Shanping; Colinas, C. (Carlos); He, Xinhua; Shi, Xiaofei; Wang, Yanliang; Yu, FuqiangBlack truffles and white truffles are widely studied around the world, but their effects on plant growth and physiological responses, and on the mycorrhizosphere bacterial community of the host plant remain unclear. Here, mycorrhizal colonization of Castanopsis rockii by Tuber indicum (Chinese black truffle) and T. lijiangense (Chinese white truffle), respectively, was induced in a greenhouse study, and their effects on host growth, physiological responses and mycorrhizosphere bacterial communities were compared. The results show that colonization of both Tuber species significantly increased leaf photosynthetic rate, leaf P concentration and mycorrhizosphere acid phosphatase activity, as well as richness of mycorrhizosphere bacterial communities of C. rockii seedlings. However, T. indicum colonization on the one hand significantly decreased tartrate content, bacterial acid phosphatase, phoC gene abundance in the mycorrhizosphere, and peroxidase (POD) activity of ectomycorrhizal root tips, but on the other hand increased mycorrhizosphere pH and superoxide dismutase (SOD) of ectomycorrhizal root tips, compared to T. lijiangense colonization. Moreover, principal coordinate and β-diversity analyses show significant differences in mycorrhizosphere bacterial community composition between T. indicum and T. lijiangese colonized C. rockii seedlings. Finally, the relative abundance of the bacterium Agromyces cerinus significantly correlated to mycorrhizosphere acid phosphatase activity and leaf P concentration, suggesting that this bacterium might play an important role in P mobilization and acquisition. Overall, these results suggest that T. indicum and T. lijiangense differently regulate their host plant’s physiological responses and mycorrhizosphere bacterial community.
- ItemOpen AccessBioavailability of organosulfur compounds after the ingestion of black garlic by healthy humans(MDPI, 2023) Moreno-Ortega, Alicia; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Motilva Casado, Mª José; Ludwig, Iziar A.The consumption of black garlic has been related to a decreased risk of many human diseases due to the presence of phytochemicals such as organosulfur compounds (OSCs). However, information on the metabolization of these compounds in humans is limited. By means of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS), this study aims to determine the OSCs and their metabolites excreted in urine 24 h after an acute intake of 20 g of black garlic by healthy humans. Thirty-three OSCs were identified and quantified, methiin (17,954 ± 6040 nmol), isoalliin (15,001 ± 9241 nmol), S-(2-carboxypropyl)-L-cysteine (8804 ± 7220 nmol) and S-propyl-L-cysteine (deoxypropiin) (7035 ± 1392 nmol) being the main ones. Also detected were the metabolites N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine (NASAC), N-acetyl-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (NASACS) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxypropyl)-L-cysteine (NACPC), derived from S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC), alliin and S-(2-carboxypropyl)-L-cysteine, respectively. These compounds are potentially N-acetylated in the liver and kidney. The total excretion of OSCs 24 h after the ingestion of black garlic was 64,312 ± 26,584 nmol. A tentative metabolic pathway has been proposed for OSCs in humans.
- ItemOpen AccessWheat yield is not causally related to the duration of the growing season.(Elsevier, 2023) Slafer, Gustavo A.; Savin, Roxana; Sadras, Víctor O.A common conceptual model for crop growth analysis assumes biomass is proportional to the accumulation of radiation intercepted by the canopy during the growing season, and yield is the product of biomass and harvest index. This model assumes that biomass and harvest index are independent, and that biomass has the same value for yield across developmental stages; here we focus on the latter assumption. A corollary of this model is that yield and duration of the growing season are causally related. In this article, we analyse the evidence for and against this causal relationship. We use both a physiological perspective and agronomic evidence to challenge this causality. An alternative, phenology-focused model is outlined that is based on the following principles: crops accommodate environmental variation through grain number, grain number is defined in a species-specific critical developmental period, and grain number is a function of three traits in the critical period: duration, growth rate, and partitioning to reproduction. Against this framework, we analyse dual purpose wheat, where a substantial part of the biomass is removed, effectively shortening the growing season, with little or no effect on yield; timing of nitrogen fertilisation, where delayed application reduces the growth rate early in the season, with little or no effect on yield; and the correlation between season length and yield of winter wheat and spring wheat - wheat yield in Southern Chile, with a sowing-to-maturity season of ∼ 5 months, could be as high as that of winter wheat in the UK, with a sowing-to-maturity season of ∼ 10 months. Physiological principles and agronomic evidence support the conclusion that the duration of, and growth rate and partitioning during the critical period, rather than the duration of the growing season, are the drivers of wheat yield.
- ItemOpen AccessMeasurement of Methane and Ammonia Emissions from Compost-Bedded Pack Systems in Dairy Barns: Tilling Effect and Seasonal Variations(MDPI, 2023-06-04) Fuertes Gimeno, Esperanza; Balcells Terés, Joaquim; Maynegre Santaulària, Jordi; de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Sarri Espinosa, Laura; Seradj, Ahmad RezaDairy cattle contribute to environmental harm as a source of polluting gas emissions, mainly of enteric origin, but also from manure management, which varies among housing systems. Compost-bedded pack systems use manure as bedding material, which is composted in situ daily. As current literature referring to their impact on NH3 and CH4 emissions is scarce, this study aims to characterize the emissions of these two gases originating from three barns of this system, differentiating between two emission phases: static emission and dynamic emission. In addition, the experiment differentiated emissions between winter and summer. Dynamic emission, corresponding to the time of the day when the bed is being composted, increased over 3 and 60 times the static emission of NH3 and CH4, respectively. In terms of absolute emissions, both gases presented higher emissions during summer (1.86 to 4.08 g NH3 m−2 day−1 and 1.0 to 4.75 g CH4 m−2 day−1 for winter and summer, respectively). In this way, contaminant gases produced during the tilling process of the manure, especially during the warmer periods of the year, need to be taken into account as they work as a significant factor in emissions derived from compost-bedded pack systems.
- ItemOpen AccessAwned versus awnless wheat spikes: does it matter?(Elsevier, 2023) Sanchez-Bragado, Rut; Molero, Gemma; Araus Ortega, José Luis; Slafer, Gustavo A.Awnless and awned wheat is found across the globe. Archeological and historical records show that the wheat spike was predominantly awned across the many millennia following domestication. Thus, ancient farmers did not select against awns at least until the last millennium. Here, we describe the evolution and domestication of wheat awns, quantifying their role in spike photosynthesis and yield under contrasting environments. Awns increase grain weight directly (increasing the size of all grains) or indirectly (increasing the failure of distal grains), but not as a consequence of additional spike photosynthesis. However, a trade-off is produced through decreasing grain number. Thus, favorable effects of awns on yield are not consistently found across environments.
- ItemOpen AccessPre-anthesis spike growth dynamics and its association to yield components among elite bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. spp.) under Mediterranean climate(Elsevier, 2023) Roychowdhury, Rajib; Zilberman, Orian; Chandrasekhar, Kottakota; Curzon, Arie Yehuda; Nashef, Kamal; Abbo, Shahal; Slafer, Gustavo A.; Bonfil, David J.; Ben-David, R.Context Wheat (Triticum spp.) grain yield (GY) is highly associated with grain number per unit area (GN m-2). Biomass accumulation and partitioning are essential to understand pre-anthesis spike growth dynamics which determines spike dry matter at anthesis (SDMa) - a GN determinant. Spike growth takes place during the stem elongation period (SE), from terminal spikelet to anthesis, following leaf and spikelet initiation (LS) from sowing to terminal spikelet. Objective In this study, bread wheat cultivars were examined under Mediterranean semi-arid conditions to determine (i) the varietal differences in pre-anthesis phase duration, (ii) whether this variability influences biomass partitioning and spike-related traits, and (iii) to what extent, the genotypic variations in pre-anthesis phase duration and spike growth are associated with yield components. Methods A panel of Israeli commercial bread wheat cultivars were grown in the field during 2016-17 (three environments) and 2017-18 (two environments) and characterized for pre-anthesis phases, floral conditions and spike fertility via histological measurements; spike traits, dry matter accumulation, partitioning at anthesis and maturity and for yield components. Results Significant variability in the timing of pre-anthesis phases was detected within the tested panel for both LS and SE phases. LS duration was positively associated with growing degree days (GDD) to anthesis across environments (0.72-0.90) while variation in SE was related with differences in GDD to anthesis but to a lesser extent and not in all environments (0.47-0.79). In addition, LS duration, and occasionally SE, were favourably related with a higher dry matter of fertile florets spike-1 (at anthesis) and SDM (at both anthesis and maturity). Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly separates environments and to a lesser extent cultivars within each environment. Two cultivar pairs 'Zahir-Yuval' and 'Negev-Gedera', which flowered concurrently, showed significant differences in the durations of LS and SE phases across most of the environments. Longer LS, in cultivars Zahir and Negev, exhibited increased spikelets spike-1, whereas longer SE (e.g., in Yuval and Gedera) enhanced spike fertility through improving the survival rate of floret primordia (FSR%) of central spikelets. However, there was a trade-off for FSR at the proximal and distal spike portions, resulting in lower grain set (%) leading to reduction of final GN (or GY) in cultivars with longer SE. Conclusions In the tested panel and under our environmental conditions characterized by growing cycle and Mediterranean climate, the duration of both LS and SE contribute to spike fertility, but LS duration seemed a stronger driver than SE for GN and yield enhancement. Implications Our results highlight the importance of pre-anthesis phases, especially the role of LS in wheat yield increment during the short growing cycle. The varietal combination with variable LS and SE duration could be implemented in breeding pipelines and used as pre-breeding materials for GN improvement. Furthermore, the findings will encourage pre-anthesis traits adoption in Mediterranean bread wheat future breeding programs.
- ItemOpen AccessFrom Pyrenees to Andes: The relationship between transhumant livestock and vultures(Elsevier, 2023) Arrondo, Eneko; Guido, Jorgelina; Oliva-Vidal, Pilar; Margalida, Antoni; Lambertucci, Sergio A.; Donázar, José Antonio; Cortés-Avizanda, Ainara; Anadón, José DanielTranshumance is the traditional livestock practice consisting in the seasonal movement of herds between winter and summer pastures. Transhumance have important effects on the ecosystem functions from local to regional scales. Here, we 1) explored the relationship of vultures to transhumant herds, and 2) tested whether there is a shift on the use of space by vultures due to the decline of transhumance. For that, we first assessed whether vultures follow transhumant herds in two mountain areas with transhumant tradition, Pyrenees (Spain) and Andes (Argentina). Second, we compared both systems to determine whether the impact of transhumance on the use of space of vultures is greater in the area where transhumance is still relevant (Andes) than where this activity is in decline (Pyrenees). For this purpose, we analyzed the use of the summer pastures made by 50 griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) and 18 Andean condors (Vultur gryphus), as assessed by GPS tracking. Our findings showed that both species respond to transhumance by making greater use of summer pastures when herds are present. A higher proportion of condors made use of summer pastures than griffons, and condors individually made a more intense use of it than griffons. Differences could be explained by the fact that transhumance in the Andes is still important while in the Pyrenees is declining and the amount of carrion provided is lower. Given that the abandonment of traditional activities is a phenomenon underway, it is urgent to evaluate the effects it will have on biodiversity conservation.
- ItemOpen AccessPickering emulsion stabilized by fish myofibrillar proteins modified with tannic acid, as influenced by different drying methods(MPDI, 2023) Patil, Umesh; Gulzar, Saqib; Ma, Lukai; Zhang, Bin; Benjakul, SoottawatA novel food-grade, particles-based Pickering emulsion (PE) was prepared from a marine source. Yellow stripe trevally is an under-utilized species. The use of its muscle protein as solid food-grade particles for the preparation of a Pickering emulsion can be a potential means of obtaining the natural nutritive emulsifier/stabilizer. Fish myofibrillar proteins (FMP) were modified with tannic acid (TA) at varying concentrations (0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%) followed by freeze-drying (FD) or spray-drying (SD). Physicochemical characteristics and emulsifying properties of obtained FMP-TA complexed particles were assessed for structural changes and oil-in-water emulsion stabilization. The addition of TA caused a reduction in surface hydrophobicity and total sulfhydryl content values for either FD-FMP or SD-FMP. Conversely, disulfide bond content was significantly increased, particularly when TA at 0.5% was used (p < 0.05). FTIR, spectrofluorometer, and the protein pattern also confirmed the cross-linking between FMP and TA. SD-FMP modified with 0.5% TA (SD-FMP-0.5TA) rendered the highest emulsifying stability index but had a lowered emulsifying activity index (p < 0.05). Confocal microscopic images, droplet size, and rheological properties revealed that a SD-FMP-0.5TA-stabilized emulsion had higher stability after 45 days of storage than an FD-FMP-0.5TA-stabilized emulsion. Therefore, the SD-FMP-0.5TA complex could be used as a potential food-grade stabilizer/emulsifier for PE with enhanced emulsifying properties.