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    Open Access
    Un cercle poètic al bisbat de Girona de 1250-1280: pistes documentals
    (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), 2023-12-30) Cabré Duran, Maria; Reixach Sala, Albert
    L’article proposa un replantejament del paper de les terres gironines en la cultura trobadoresca, centrat sobretot en les circumstàncies de la possible etapa inicial de l’activitat de Cerverí (el moment en què es va convertir en Cerverí de Girona), la interpretació del sentit de la ruta de la seva Recepta de xarob i, finalment, la reconstrucció d’un cercle poètic entorn de la catedral de Girona. Per a tots aquests aspectes, combina l’anàlisi literària amb les dades històriques, tot recollint informació dispersa i inèdita sobre els personatges rellevants. En resulten exemples evidents de la implicació de la noblesa amb la cultura trobadoresca i de la manera com la lírica dels trobadors reflecteix les xarxes familiars i polítiques, i així complementa la visió que tradicionalment s’ha tingut de les relacions entre la noblesa i la reialesa en moments de conflicte.
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    Open Access
    Análisis de errores y etiquetado en los corpus de aprendices de ELE informatizados
    (Edicions de la Universitat de Lleida, 2024) Calero Fernández, Ma. Ángeles
    Este trabajo plantea si es posible determinar una taxonomía del error de la que pueda derivarse un sistema de etiquetado estandarizado semiautomático aplicable a corpus de aprendices digitalizados. Para ello, partiendo de la lingüística del corpus y de las aproximaciones al error, se revisan diferentes clasificaciones que se han hecho sobre los errores en el contexto de aprendizaje del español como lengua extranjera (ELE) con el fin de identificar los criterios básicos que las fundamentan y las principales dificultades que afronta un intento de establecer una taxonomía generalizable. Asimismo, se examinan aplicaciones informáticas diseñadas para anotar errores y que se han utilizado en el estudio de la interlengua de aprendices de ELE. Entre ellas se destaca el programa TextAnnot, construido sobre la base del Corpus de INterlengua Española de Aprendices Sinohablante (CINEAS), que ofrece un esquema de etiquetado de errores para su uso en cualquier corpus de aprendices de ELE.
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    Open Access
    First report of a wide distribution of glyphosate-resistant compact brome (Bromus madritensis) in the Iberian Peninsula: confirmation and field management
    (Cambridge University Press, 2023) Vázquez-García, José G.; Castro, Patricia; Royo-Esnal, Aritz; Palma-Bautista, Candelario; Torra Farré, Joel; Prado, Rafael De
    Glyphosate resistance is spreading in Spain and Portugal due to excessive herbicide use, in both annual and perennial crops. Compact brome (Bromus madritensis L.) is increasing in frequency in these different cropping systems when under conservation agriculture, particularly when glyphosate fails to control it. Fourteen populations from different areas in the Iberian Peninsula were confirmed as being B. madritensis using simple sequence repeat markers and clearly separated from the closely related species red brome (Bromus rubens L.) and ripgut brome (Bromus diandrus Roth). Six B. madritensis populations were classified as resistant, according to both their shikimic acid accumulation levels and their resistance factors based on LD50 or GR50 (values between 4 and 8). Populations with higher resistance factors also showed lower shikimic acid concentrations. Moreover, these resistant populations were able to survive the minimum registered dose for glyphosate in Spain in perennial crops (1,080 g ae ha−1, five populations) or in arable crops before seeding for annual weeds (540 g ae ha−1, one population), under both greenhouse and field conditions. The trials carried out in a glyphosate-resistant field during 2 consecutive years showed that acceptable control (≥90%) was only consistently achieved 90 d after application for preemergence treatment with flazasulfuron in a tank mix with glyphosate, while control with postemergence treatments, such as propaquizafop plus glyphosate, was below 80%. This research describes the first herbicide-resistance report for the weed species B. madritensis, confirming the presence of glyphosate-resistant populations mainly in perennial cropping systems but also in winter cereals from Spain. Due to the limited chemical tools to manage these populations, there is an urgent need for farmers to implement integrated weed management strategies.
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    Open Access
    Physical-chemical, mechanical and durability characterization of historical adobe buildings from the State of Michoacan, Mexico
    (Elsevier, 2024) Sánchez Calvillo, Adrià; Alonso Guzmán, Elia Mercedes; Navarro Ezquerra, Antonia; Ruiz Mendoza, Melissa; Martínez Molina, Wilfrido; Álvarez Galindo, José Ignacio; Rincón, Lídia
    Most earthen historical buildings have been abandoned for decades, exposed to the weathering and the passage of time. In Mexico, the low status of earthen constructions has increased these deterioration processes, resulting into the risk of disappearance of this significant architectural heritage. Historical adobes from monumental buildings in the State of Michoacan were sampled and collected in the localities of La Huacana (H) and Santa Cruz de Morelos (SC). The specimens were characterized in the materials laboratory, assessing their physical-chemical, mechanical and durability properties. An interdisciplinary methodology was designed through institutional cooperation and the application of different test methods. The adobes showed totally different compositions and proportions, and stabilizers like vegetal fibers, nevertheless, the mechanical performance of both samples was very similar, achieving respectable values in the context of historical adobe structures. Several correlations were found through the analyses: the physical properties like the density, the color or the electrical resistivity were related with the mechanical and durability ones; the non-destructive testing (NDT) allowed to calculate the dynamic elasticity modulus and infer the mechanical behavior; the chemical characterization enabled to obtain the elemental and mineralogical composition; and the Atterberg limits gave the soil classification. The research showed the broad diversity of earthen solutions and demonstrated how the granulometry is not a limitation to the adobe production, since the local soils can achieve similar mechanical and durability behaviors. Furthermore, H presented very different composition than the guidelines for earthen construction; nevertheless, the samples showed better durability performance and lower capillarity absorption rates. It is hoped that the results obtained with this research can help the further development of the earthen materials characterization and the decision-making process for the restoration and conservation of historical and vernacular constructions.
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    Open Access
    Study of the microstructure-property-processing relationship in five potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties during the frying process based on an automatic classification system using convolutional neural networks
    (Odesa National University of Technology, 2023-12) Oblitas Cruz, Jimy Frank; Castro, Wilson; Torres-Carranza, Eduardo; Ibarz Ribas, Alberto
    Our objective was to identify and analyze the microstructural features of five different Peruvian potato varieties in fresh material and a frying process, using a 32-factorial arrangement of temperature and time. Two types of characteristics were measured. The first ones were of microstructural type (i.e., area, perimeter, length of major axis, length of minor axis, roundness, elongation, and compactness) and the second ones were of physicochemical type (i.e., L*, a*, b*, ΔE, acrylamide concentration, fat percentage, moisture percentage, and texture). For this purpose, potato microstructural characterization software was implemented, developing algorithms for image processing and analysis, as well as the classification of structural characteristics. Potato variety was found to exert a significant effect on the microstructural parameters of area, perimeter, major axis length, minor axis length, roundness, and compactness, followed by time, with a significant effect on the microstructural parameters of area, perimeter, major axis length, minor axis length, and compactness. Temperature exerts a significant effect only on roundness and elongation parameters. To observe the relationship between the microstructural and physicochemical parameters, a Pearson correlation was used where it was observed that the correlations between the physicochemical and microstructural variables evaluated were medium to strong.
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    Open Access
    Informe de formació 2023
    (2023) Universitat de Lleida. Unitat de Suport a la Governança
    L’informe recull una mostra dels principals indicadors relatius a l’oferta, l’accés de nous estudiants i la matrícula de les titulacions de grau, màster universitari del curs 2023-2024, i els resultats acadèmics del curs 2022-2023.
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    Embargo
    Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson: a new threat to agriculture in Europe and the Mediterranean region
    (Wiley, 2023) Matzrafi, Maor; Scarabel, Laura; Milani, Andrea; Lamonico, Duilio; Torra Farré, Joel; Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi; Montull Daniel, José María; Llenes, Josep Maria; Gazoulis, Ioannis; Tataridas, Alexandros; Rubin, Baruch; Pardo, Gabriel; Cirujeda, Alicia; Marí, Ana Isabel; Mennan, Husrev; Kanatas, Panagiotis; Nedim Dogan, Mehmet; Beffa, Roland; Travlos, Ilias
    Amaranthus palmeriS. Watson is a dioecious broad-leaved species characterised byrapid growth, high seed production, efficient resource use and adaptability to diverseenvironments and cropping systems.A. palmeripopulations are spreading beyond theirnative range in south western United States, into the Mediterranean region and havebeen reported in several European and Mediterranean countries. First stands werelocated along roadsides, and later in nearby agricultural fields. Possible routes of intro-duction include contaminated animal feed and grain shipments for industrial processing.Some EuropeanA.palmeripopulations appear to be already resistant to5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase and acetolactate synthase inhibitorswhen imported. Recent studies suggest that this trait may have evolved in the origincountry before the introduction into southern Europe and the wider Mediterraneanregion. Effective, transboundary networks have to be established between farmers andresearchers to raise agricultural community awareness and continuously monitor theinvasiveness ofA. palmeriin Europe. In this review, we first highlight botanical charac-teristics that allow accurate identification ofA. palmerifrom closely relatedAmaranthusspecies. Then, we summarise recent reports on the occurrence of A. palmeriin Europe and the Mediterranean region. We proceed to assess future invasion and spread acrossEurope according to climate and agricultural practices. In addition, we review measuresto early detectA. palmeriand emphasised on feasible, chemical and non-chemical weedcontrol methods as components of integrated weed management to mitigate theimpact of A. palmeriinvasion on European agriculture.
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    Open Access
    An Asp376Glu substitution in ALS gene and enhanced metabolism confers high tribenuron-methyl resistance in Sinapis alba
    (Frontiers Media, 2022-11-11) Palma-Bautista, Candelario; Vázquez-García, José G.; Osuna-Ruiz, Maria D.; García-García, Blanca; Torra Farré, Joel; Portugal, Joao de; Prado, Rafael de
    Acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides (group 2) have been widely applied for the last 20 years to control Sinapis alba in cereal crops from southern Spain. In 2008, a tribenuron-methyl (TM) resistant (R) S. alba population was first reported in a cereal field in Malaga (southern Spain). In 2018, three suspected R S. alba populations (R1, R2 and R3) to TM were collected from three different fields in Granada (southern Spain, 100 km away from Malaga). The present work aims to confirm the putative resistance of these populations to TM and explore their resistance mechanisms. Dose-response assays showed that the R1, R2 and R3 populations ranging between 57.4, 44.4 and 57.1 times more resistance to TM than the susceptible population (S). A mutation in the ALS gene (Asp376Glu) was detected in the Rs S. alba populations. 14C-metabolism studies show that metabolites and TM were changing significantly faster in the R than in the S plants. Alternative chemical control trials showed that 2,4-D and MCPA (auxin mimics), glyphosate (enolpyruvyl shikimate phosphate synthase,EPSPS, inhibitor-group 9), metribuzin (PSII inhibitors/Serine 264 Binders, -group 5) and mesotrione (hydroxyphenyl pyruvate dioxygenase, HPPD, inhibitor-group 27) presented a high control of the four populations of S. alba tested, both S and R. Based on these results, it is the first case described where the Asp376Glu mutation and P450-mediated metabolism participates in resistance to TM in S. alba. Comparing these results with those found in the S. alba population in Malaga in 2008, where the resistance was TSR type (Pro197Ser), we can suggest that despite the geographical proximity (over 100 km), the resistance in these cases was due to different evolutionary events.
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    Open Access
    Nota sobre la edición, traducción y transcripción
    (Edicions Bellaterra, 2015) Roca Álvarez, Albert
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    Open Access
    Prólogo a la edición en castellano y Nota del traductor
    (Edicions Bellaterra, 2012) Roca Álvarez, Albert