Cover crops terminated with roller-crimper to manage Cynodon dactylon and other weeds in vineyards
2023, Cabrera Pérez, Carlos, Royo-Esnal, Aritz, Català, Bruna, Baraibar Padró, Bàrbara, Recasens i Guinjuan, Jordi
Using cover crops in organic vineyards can provide many advantages, including weed suppression. However, their effectiveness may depend on the weed community, the cover crop species and the termination method. The most common practice for cover crop termination is shredding, but rapid residue decomposition can allow noxious species like Cynodon dactylon to proliferate during summer and compete with the vines. The use of roller-crimpers as an alternative method can be effective in some cropping systems, but no studies have focused on their use in the inter-row of vineyards. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of seven cover crops (spontaneous, Avena strigosa, Hordeum vulgare, Lolium multiflorum, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Sinapis alba and X Triticosecale) and two termination methods (shredding or roller-crimper) in managing C. dactylon during summer. RESULTS: In 2020, rolled A. strigosa, P. tanacetifolia and the spontaneous flora limited the coverage of C. dactylon more than shredding (increases of 3% and 18% in C. dactylon cover from July to September in rolled and shredded cover crops, respectively), while in 2021, rolling was better than shredding for all cover crop species in September (5% and 18% increases, respectively). CONCLUSION: Roller-crimping cover crops was an effective method to control C. dactylon in vineyard inter-rows but it did not consistently work for all cover crops in both years. Our study is one of the first to test the efficacy of roller-crimpers to manage summer weeds in vineyards. © 2023 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.
Can traditional management practices help mountain livestock farms in the Spanish Pyrenees cope with climate change?
2024, Muñoz-Ulecia, Enrique, Martín-Collado, Daniel, Bernués, Alberto, Peral, Alicia Tenza, Casasús, Isabel, Villalba Mata, Daniel
Livestock grazing systems constitute a traditional activity in mountain areas. They are adapted to vegetation growth cycles in meadows, forests and grasslands, and deliver ecosystem services such as open landscapes, wildfires prevention, biodiversity maintenance and quality products. Climate change poses a new challenge on mountain grazing systems by impacting on its natural resource base. We used the model NODRIZA to evaluate the potential impact of three scenarios of altered pasture quality and quantity due to climate change (optimistic, medium and worst) and a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) on four beef farms representative of the existing grazing systems in the Spanish Pyrenees. We explored the role of traditional management practices (e.g. modifying the grazing season and early weaning) to cope with these changes. Cow body condition score, feed self-sufficiency and gross margin were the indicators of farms functioning. The optimistic scenario improved all farming indicators during most of the modelled period and then declined—still above BAU levels—in the long term. The medium scenario resulted in an initial improvement of farming indicators and a decline to BAU levels in the long run. The worst scenario declined all indicators below BAU levels. The four case studies were impacted in the same direction but to different extent, farms oriented to fattened calves suffered higher impacts than those focused on weaned calves. Traditional adaptation actions succeeded to maintain cow body condition score steady, but they came at the expense of lower feed self-sufficiency and gross margin, becoming impractical to face climate change.
Social Cohesion and Jewish Otherness in Late Medieval Catalonia
2023, Sabaté, Flocel
The rulers of Catalonia during the high Middle Ages tried to maintain the multi-ethnic character of their country, as explained by Maria Bonet Donato in the previous chapter, always guided primarily by the economic and ideological interests of Christians who were the great landowners and who were at this point adapting their beliefs to the values introduced by the so-called Gregorian Reforms of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. We are now going to analyse how this evolved in the following centuries, in the Catalonia of the late Middle Ages. The values on which the cohesion of society was based conditioned the criteria for integration and exclusion. The outlook and treatment that the dominant Christian society in late medieval Catalonia offered the Jewish minority was an excellent paradigm.
Quantifying pre- and post-anthesis heat waves on grain number and grain weight of contrasting wheat cultivars
2024, Kim, Jinwook, Savin, Roxana, Slafer, Gustavo A.
Context or problem: Further increasing wheat productivity is more challenging due to consistently rising temperatures. Heat stress negatively affects both grain number per m2 (GN) and average grain weight (AGW). It is not clear whether the sensitivity of these components differ, nor whether it would be related to the relevance of the component for determining unstressed yield in the particular cultivar. Objective or research question: The aim of this study was to elucidate the plasticity of GN and AGW in response to heat waves at pre-anthesis; and post-anthesis under different source-sink ratios. Methods: The field experiments were carried out in two different locations of Catalonia (NE Spain). We selected two contrasting genotypes (Pistolo and Sublim) for the relevance of GN and AGW and analysed in detail (i) the causes for their differences in AGW and (ii) their GN and AGW responses to heat wave stress (HT). The HT treatments were imposed in the field using portable tents with transparent polyethylene films at either at booting (pre-AN HT) or 15 days after anthesis (post-AN HT) for 7 days, with a delta in maximum temperature of c. 5ºC. In addition, we increased source-sink ratios in the control and post-AN HT treatments by removing all spikelets on one side of the spike (de-graining) 14 days after anthesis. Results: Pistolo had always less but heavier grains than Sublim. The differences in AGW were constitutive, rather reflecting a trade-off with GN, as there was no scarcity of resources to satisfy the demands of the growing grains in any of the two cultivars. Exposing the crops to heat stress at pre- and post-anthesis resulted in yield penalties, but yield was more sensitive to pre-AN HT than to post-AN HT, consistently across both locations and genotypes. The reduction of GN per spike was mainly mediated through grain abortion rather than through mortality of floret primordia. The reduction of AGW caused by post-AN HT was not related to source strength changes, but due to a direct effect reducing potential grain weight (PGW) per se. There seemed to be a trend for the cultivar constitutively producing more grains having less sensitivity of GN to pre-AN HT, and for the cultivar constitutively having heavier grains having less sensitivity of AGW to post-AN HT. Conclusions: The reduction of AGW caused by post-AN HT was not related to source strength changes, but due to a direct effect reducing potential grain weight. The plasticity of a yield component in response to heat stress was inversely related to the relevance of that component for yield determination in unheated conditions. Implications or significance: Our result would open an opportunity for breeders to select for improved sink-strength through either higher GN or higher PGW depending on the timing and frequency of the most damaging heat waves.
El proyecto de investigación “MASDIME”: actividades
2024, Mérida Jiménez, Rafael M. (Rafael Manuel)
El proyecto oficial “Memorias de las masculinidades disidentes en España e Hispanoamérica” (MASDIME) es un proyecto multidisciplinario, pues implica la colaboración entre varias disciplinas para resolver sus objetivos. Entre las áreas de conocimiento de los integrantes del equipo figuran la Literatura española e hispanoamericana, la Teoría del arte, la Sociología, la Antropología o la Comunicación audiovisual. Este proyecto oficial de investigación se emplaza en la órbita de los estudios de género, LGBTI+ y culturales y en torno a las masculinidades, circunstancia que propicia también un claro acento interdisciplinario, pues entre sus objetivos figuran algunos para los que la cooperación que resulta de aplicar conocimientos, métodos y perspectivas de más de una de las disciplinas convencionales debe tener un efecto superior a la suma de los abordajes individuales.
Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Two Years after the Start of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mixed Methods Study
2024-02-16, Botigué, Teresa, Camí Garanto, Carla, Selva Pareja, Laia, Masot, Olga, Espart Herrero, Anna, Campoy Guerrero, Carme, Roca Llobet, Judith
Introduction. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a need to promote the most adequate behaviors. It is essential to know what aspects were implemented and what needs to be re-enforced. Objectives. (a) To identify the knowledge and behaviors related with preventive measures, lifestyle habits, sources of information, vaccination, and emotions generated and coping strategies and (b) to explore the personal experiences with respect to the knowledge, attitudes, and practices when facing COVID-19. Design. A convergent mixed method design. Setting and Participants. This study was conducted in the Segrià region (Catalonia, Spain) during the months of January and February 2022, with individuals 18 years old or older. Methods. Based on variables proposed by the WHO and a bibliographic review, an ad hoc electronic survey was utilized for the quantitative part, analyzed through frequency distribution or central tendency and dispersion measurements. For the qualitative part, two focus groups were analyzed through content analysis. Results. The participants (n QUAN = 1,559; n QUAL = 19) were aware about and applied the prevention measures, but when delving into it, deficiencies were detected especially when referring to hand-washing; lifestyles remained healthy; the population trusted the information from professionals (78.8%), but excess of information led to saturation; protection (75.3%) and herd immunity (47.2%) were recognized with vaccination; and the psychological impact (69.5%) was buffered with the activation of positive coping measures (99.1%), although it was maintained in more than half of them. Conclusions. This study showed that prevention measures must be re-enforced, especially hand-washing. Another revealing aspect was psychological impact, which, although coping measures were utilized, was maintained for another two years in most of them. This evidences the need for an intervention centered on this to guarantee the mental health of the population. Implications for Nursing Management. The detection of the current needs of the population provides the information necessary for the design of an adapted intervention and for promoting health education programs to address COVID-19 or other future health situations.
Ammonia volatilization from pig slurries in a semiarid agricultural rainfed area
2023, Jiménez de Santiago, Diana Elisa, Ovejero, Jonatan, Antúnez Pujol, Montserrat, Bosch Serra, Àngela D.
Slurries are one of the main NH3 emission sources. Nitrogen losses impact air quality, and they constrain the sustainability of farming activities. In a rainfed Mediterranean agricultural system, the aim was to quantify NH3 emissions at a time when plants do not yet cover the soil surface and according to fertilization practices. One treatment was slurry from fattening pigs (PSF) applied before cereal sowing and incorporated into the soil; two treatments were PSF or from sows (PSS) applied at the cereal tillering stage (topdressing); and two more treatments received slurries twice, before sowing and as topdressing. Ammonia emissions were quantified with semi-static chambers during 145 h (before sowing) and 576 h (at cereal tillering) after slurry application. Before sowing, tillage after slurry application controlled NH3-N emissions, but they accounted for 14% of the total NH4-N applied. At tillering, average NH3-N emissions also accounted for ca. 14% of total NH4-N applied as PSF or PSS, respectively. Slurry dry matter from 84 kg m-3 (PSS) up to 127 kg m-3 (PSF), combined with low soil moisture content (below 30% of water holding capacity) at application time, helped in NH3 emission control. Slurry applications before sowing did not enhance later NH3-N emissions at topdressing.
El proyecto de investigación “MASDIME”: presentación
2024, Mérida Jiménez, Rafael M. (Rafael Manuel)
El proyecto oficial “Memorias de las masculinidades disidentes en España e Hispanoamérica”, financiado por la Agencia Estatal de Investigación del Ministerio de Ciencia, Investigación y Universidades del Gobierno de España tiene como objetivo fundamental realizar una investigación en obras de carácter explícita o implícitamente autobiográfico en torno a la construcción de la masculinidad que han sido creadas por personas que manifiestan su disidencia sexual y/o de género. El corpus se centra especialmente en piezas literarias, artísticas y audiovisuales creadas en España e Hispanoamérica, sobre todo a lo largo del siglo XX y hasta la actualidad, por “varones gais” y “mujeres trans”. Su referencia es PID2019-106083GB-I00 y su acrónimo es MASDIME. El Investigador Principal (IP) es el Dr. Rafael M. Mérida Jiménez, catedrático de la Universidad de Lleida.