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- ItemOpen AccessLos inicios de la crisis del XVII en el poniente catalán: la hacienda local leridana, 1566-1611(Universidad de Cádiz, 1999) Passola i Tejedor, Antoni
- ItemOpen AccessRelació de les comunicacions de la sessió "els marcs institucionals entorn els recs històrics"(Institut d'Estudis Ilerdencs, 2018) Passola i Tejedor, Antoni
- ItemOpen AccessQueering Time, Questioning Ageism Through Speculative Siction(transcript Verlag, 2023-08-27) Oró Piqueras, Maricel; Falcus, SarahSpeculative narratives offer particularly rich and complex explorations of time and aging, exhibiting a tendency to play with ‘queer temporalities’ and imagine the lifecourse and human chronology in alternative ways. In this article, we employ an ageing studies perspective in our analysis of time, the lifecourse and aging in four visual speculative narratives. We focus on recent film/TV about increased longevity/immortality. “San Junipero” (in TV Series Black Mirror, 2016), Mr Nobody (2009) and In Time (2011) imagine societies in which forms of technologically enabled extended longevity have been achieved. The Age of Adaline (2015), on the other hand, follows the tradition of speculative fiction about exclusive immortality, achieved only by one or a small number of persons. All four texts play with linear and chronological aging and juxtapose youth and age in provocative ways, exploiting the possibilities of the visual mode. In Time and Adaline seem to yearn for normative social order and present extended longevity as the source of unhappiness and social crisis. San Junipero and Mr Nobody, on the other hand, focus on the possibilities of temporal disorder as a way of escaping normative expectations. They draw attention to the constricting nature of normative times and combine utopian and dystopian elements to explore the tension between normative and queer temporal orders.
- ItemOpen AccessSculpture in Catalonia during the Romanesque period(Institut d’Estudis Catalans, 2023-09-07) Lorés, ImmaculadaStudies on much of the Catalan sculpture from the Romanesque period have naturally been closely associated with studies on the architecture from the same period. The historiographic story presented here is organised through a series of relevant themes that we believe have marked the research, especially on architectural sculpture: the eleventh century and the start of sculptural decoration of churches in both stone and stucco; the knowledge we have about the materials used and reused and aspects of the workshops’ work processes; the historiographic creations by the supposed masters, in a scene without the names of artists; the iconographic programme in its context; and the reality of many sculptural sets which at a some point were pillaged or disassembled and are now dispersed and decontextualised. This article ends with a section on furniture.
- ItemOpen AccessHeinrich Stadial 1 continental sand dunes and Middle to Late Holocene paleosol sequences in SE Iberia: Implications for human occupation and site formation processes(Elsevier, 2023) Fernández López de Pablo, Javier; Polo-Díaz, Ana; Ferrer-García, Carlos; Poch, Rosa M.Continental aeolian sandy deposits are common in the semi-arid Mediterranean biomes of the Iberian Peninsula. Very few studies, however, have addressed their chronology, formation, and evolution. In this work, we present the interdisciplinary study of the Villena dune field (SE Iberian Peninsula) for which sand dune-paleosol sequences spanning the Last Glacial to the Late Holocene have been documented. The surface area of the Villena dune field and the dune morphology were mapped using LIDAR elevation data. Three different stratigraphic sequences were analyzed through geochronology (OSL and AMS C14), micromorphology, soil chemistry, grain size and X-ray powder diffraction. The formation of the Villena dune field was OSL dated between 16.3 ± 0.6 and 14.97 ± 0.5 ka during the Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1). Deflation, diffuse floods and runoff processes led to the removal of GS-1 and Early Holocene sediments from the stratigraphic sequences. Subsequently, discontinuous polycyclic soil sequences developed on the dune top sections from the Middle to the Late Holocene. Three main pedogenetic processes linked to palaeoenvironmental shifts –organic matter accumulation, calcium carbonate redistribution and periglacial features– were documented in two soil sequences registered in the stratigraphies investigated, which also included sedimentary hiatuses. Our work identified for the first time: (i) the formation of continental dune deposits spanning the HS1 on the Iberian Mediterranean region; (ii) sedimentary dynamics helping to understand Early to Late Holocene archaeological site formation processes in this area; and (iii) periglacial features dated the Little Ice Age.
- ItemOpen AccessListening to stakeholders in the prevention of gender-based violence among young people in Spain: a qualitative study from the positivMasc project(BCM, 2023) Marcos-Marcos, Jorge; Nardini, Krizia; Briones Vozmediano, Erica Tula; Vives Cases, CarmenObjective This study seeks to deepen current knowledge of the phenomenon of gender-based violence (GVB) among young people in Spain, identifying the main challenges in terms of prevention from the perspective of key stakeholders in the field. Methods 23 semi-structured qualitative interviews were performed with professionals whose work involves youth and comes from different areas: social work, policy making, youth education, feminist and LGBTQ activism and anti-violence masculinities engagement (13 women and 10 men). Results Among the main challenges identified by stakeholders in relation to GBV preventive strategies in young populations there is a need to focus on transformative programmes within educational settings. The findings indicate that specific programs and interventions in this area may not be yielding the expected effectiveness. This outcome could be attributed less to a lack of resources and more to a failure to address the core issues and challenges adequately. Thus, the results underline that intervention programmes should emphasise equitable gender norms and gender relations and incorporate content on anti-violence masculinities. Finally, a pivotal aspect seen by professionals to facilitate GBV prevention is the design and development of interventions based on participatory and active approaches, close to young people’s everyday situations. The results also draw attention to the need to analyse the impact of new forms of violence in greater depth, especially those that occur through information and communication technologies. Conclusion Among other implications for policy and practice, the study points to the need to articulate interventions designed to work simultaneously at different levels of influence acting on people.
- ItemOpen AccessInfuence of variability in the cyclooxygenase pathway on cardiovascular outcomes of nephrosclerosis patients(Springer Nature, 2023) González, Luz María; Robles, Nicolás Roberto; Mota Zamorano, Sonia; Valdivielso Revilla, José Manuel; González‑Rodríguez, Laura; López Gómez, Juan; Gervasini, GuillermoNephrosclerosis patients are at an exceptionally high cardiovascular (CV) risk. We aimed to determine whether genetic variability represented by 38 tag-SNPs in genes of the cyclooxygenase pathway (PTGS1, PTGS2, PTGES, PTGES2 and PTGES3) leading to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis, modified CV traits and events in 493 nephrosclerosis patients. Additionally, we genotyped 716 controls to identify nephrosclerosis risk associations. The addition of three variants, namely PTGS2 rs4648268, PTGES3 rs2958155 and PTGES3 rs11300958, to a predictive model for CV events containing classic risk factors in nephrosclerosis patients, significantly enhanced its statistical power (AUC value increased from 78.6 to 87.4%, p = 0.0003). Such increase remained significant after correcting for multiple testing. In addition, two tag-SNPs (rs11790782 and rs2241270) in PTGES were linked to higher systolic and diastolic pressure [carriers vs. non-carriers = 5.23 (1.87–9.93), p = 0.03 and 5.9 (1.87–9.93), p = 0.004]. PTGS1(COX1) rs10306194 was associated with higher common carotid intima media thickness (ccIMT) progression [OR 1.90 (1.07–3.36), p = 0.029], presence of carotid plaque [OR 1.79 (1.06–3.01), p = 0.026] and atherosclerosis severity (p = 0.041). These associations, however, did not survive Bonferroni correction of the data. Our findings highlight the importance of the route leading to PGE2 synthesis in the CV risk experienced by nephrosclerosis patients and add to the growing body of evidence pointing out the PGE2 synthesis/activity axis as a promising therapeutic target in this field.
- ItemOpen AccessThe relationship between fre severity and burning efciency for estimating wildfre emissions in Mediterranean forests(Springer, 2023) Balde, Bountouraby; Vega García, Cristina; Gelabert Vadillo, Pere Joan; Améztegui González, Aitor; Rodrigues, MarcosForests are exposed to changing climatic conditions reflected by increasing drought and heat waves that increase the risk of wildfire ignition and spread. Climatic variables such as rain and wind as well as vegetation structure, land configuration and forest management practices are all factors that determine the burning potential of wildfires. The assessment of emissions released by vegetation combustion is essential for determining greenhouse gases and air pollutants. The estimation of wildfire-related emissions depends on factors such as the type and fraction of fuel (i.e., live biomass, ground litter, dead wood) consumed by the fire in a given area, termed the burning efficiency. Most approaches estimate live burning efficiency from optical remote sensing data. This study used a data-driven method to estimate live burning efficiency in a Mediterranean area. Burning severity estimations from Landsat imagery (dNBR), which relate to fuel consumption, and quantitative field data from three national forest inventory data were combined to establish the relationship between burning severity and live burning efficiency. Several proxies explored these relationships based on dNBR interval classes, as well as regression models. The correlation results between live burning efficiency and dNBR for conifers (R = 0.63) and broad-leaved vegetation (R = 0.95) indicated ways for improving emissions estimations. Median estimations by severity class (low, moderate-low, moderate-high, and high) are provided for conifers (0 .44 − 0.81) and broad-leaves (0.64 − 0.86), and regression models for the live fraction of the tree canopy susceptible to burning (< 2 cm, 2 − 7 cm, > 7 branches, and leaves). The live burning efficiency values by severity class were higher than previous studies.
- ItemOpen AccessMapping of corticotropin-releasing factor, receptors, and binding protein mRNA in the chicken telencephalon throughout development(Wiley, 2023) Metwalli, Alek H.; Pross, Alessandra; Desfilis, Ester; Abellán Ródenas, Antonio; Medina Hernández, Loreta MªUnderstanding the neural mechanisms that regulate the stress response is critical to know how animals adapt to a changing world and is one of the key factors to be considered for improving animal welfare. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is crucial for regulating physiological and endocrine responses, triggering the activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA) during stress. In mammals, several telencephalic areas, such as the amygdala and the hippocampus, regulate the autonomic system and the HPA responses. These centers include subpopulations of CRF containing neurons that, by way of CRF receptors, play modulatory roles in the emotional and cognitive aspects of stress. CRF binding protein also plays a role, buffering extracellular CRF and regulating its availability. CRF role in activation of the HPA is evolutionary conserved in vertebrates, highlighting the relevance of this system to help animals cope with adversity. However, knowledge on CRF systems in the avian telencephalon is very limited, and no information exists on detailed expression of CRF receptors and binding protein. Knowing that the stress response changes with age, with important variations during the first week posthatching, the aim of this study was to analyze mRNA expression of CRF, CRF receptors 1 and 2, and CRF binding protein in chicken telencephalon throughout embryonic and early posthatching development, using in situ hybridization. Our results demonstrate an early expression of CRF and its receptors in pallial areas regulating sensory processing, sensorimotor integration and cognition, and a late expression in subpallial areas regulating the stress response. However, CRF buffering system develops earlier in the subpallium than in the pallium. These results help to understand the mechanisms underlying the negative effects of noise and light during prehatching stages in chicken, and suggest that stress regulation becomes more sophisticated with age.
- ItemOpen AccessFactors associated with the need of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients after the initiation of enteral nutrition therapy(Frontiers Media, 2023-08-24) López Delgado, Juan Carlos; Servià Goixart, Lluís; Grau Carmona, Teodoro; Bordeje Laguna, Mª Luisa; Portugal Rodríguez, Esther; Lorencio Cardenas, Carol; Vera Artazcoz, Paula; Macaya Redin, Laura; Martínez Carmona, Juan Francisco; Marin Corral, Judith; Flordelis Lasierra, Jose Luis; Serón Arbeloa, Carlos; Alcazar Espin, Maravillas de las Nieves; Navas Moya, Elisabeth; Aldunate Calvo, Sara; Nieto Martino, Beatriz; Martínez de Lagran, ItziarBackground and aims: Despite enteral nutrition (EN) is the preferred route of nutrition in patients with critical illness, EN is not always able to provide optimal nutrient provision and parenteral nutrition (PN) is needed. This is strongly associated with gastrointestinal (GI) complications, a feature of gastrointestinal dysfunction and disease severity. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with the need of PN after start of EN, together with the use and complications associated with EN. Methods: Adult patients admitted to 38 Spanish intensive care units (ICUs) between April and July 2018, who needed EN therapy were included in a prospective observational study. The characteristics of EN-treated patients and those who required PN after start EN were analyzed (i.e., clinical, laboratory and scores). Results: Of a total of 443 patients, 43 (9.7%) received PN. One-third (29.3%) of patients presented GI complications, which were more frequent among those needing PN (26% vs. 60%, p = 0.001). No differences regarding mean energy and protein delivery were found between patients treated only with EN (n = 400) and those needing supplementary or total PN (n = 43). Abnormalities in lipid profile, blood proteins, and inflammatory markers, such as C-Reactive Protein, were shown in those patients needing PN. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) on ICU admission (Hazard ratio [HR]:1.161, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.053-1.281, p = 0.003) and modified Nutrition Risk in Critically Ill (mNUTRIC) score (HR:1.311, 95% CI:1.098-1.565, p = 0.003) were higher among those who needed PN. In the multivariate analysis, higher SOFA score (HR:1.221, 95% CI:1.057-1.410, p = 0.007) and higher triglyceride levels on ICU admission (HR:1.004, 95% CI:1.001-1.007, p = 0.003) were associated with an increased risk for the need of PN, whereas higher albumin levels on ICU admission (HR:0.424, 95% CI:0.210-0.687, p = 0.016) was associated with lower need of PN. Conclusion: A higher SOFA and nutrition-related laboratory parameters on ICU admission may be associated with the need of PN after starting EN therapy. This may be related with a higher occurrence of GI complications, a feature of GI dysfunction.