Effect of preharvest anti-fungal compounds on Aspergillus steynii and A. carbonarius under fluctuating and extreme environmental conditions

dc.contributor.authorGarcía Cela, Esther
dc.contributor.authorGil-Serna, Jéssica
dc.contributor.authorMarín Sillué, Sònia
dc.contributor.authorAcevedo, H.
dc.contributor.authorPatiño, Belén
dc.contributor.authorRamos Girona, Antonio J.
dc.description.abstractOchratoxin A (OTA) has been found in pre-harvest and freshly harvested wheat. Spanish climatic conditions point to Aspergillus species as probably responsible for this OTA. In this study the effectiveness of 5 non-specific antifungal chemicals used on wheat fields (25.9% tebuconazole + 60.0% N,N-capramide dimethyl; 12.70% tebuconazole + 12.7% prothioconazole + 59.5% N,N‐amide dimethyldecane; 12.5% epoxiconazole; 12.5% tetraconazole; and 70% thiophanate methyl) and an extract from Equisetum arvense were investigated in vitro on wheat by recording growth (colony size, fungal growth and DNA concentration) and OTA production of two ochratoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus carbonarius and three of A. steynii, simulating current and extreme climatic conditions. Inoculated wheat was incubated under two alternating temperature cycles (20/30 °C and 25/35 °C) with photoperiod (14/10 h lightness/darkness), and two moisture levels (40 and 25%). The Aspergillus species tested seemed to be able to persist in predicted future climatic conditions, in particular, A. steynii, a high OTA producer. Azoles were effective in controlling the growth of A. carbonarius and A. steynii, and this effectiveness may not be compromised by the increase in temperature and decrease of humidity. However, azoles are not useful for the prevention of OTA accumulation, which could be only reduced in A. carbonarius under non-extreme conditions. Although some adjustment will probably be required, further studies should be conducted in the field, since the antifungals used in this study are applied at flowering and not directly on the grain. Moreover, timing of antifungal application may need to be optimized. Finally, Equisetum extract showed promising results as an antifungal, however further work to adjust the applied concentrations is required.ca_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors are grateful to the Spanish Government (AGL2010‐22182-C04-01), the EU (Mycored KBBE-2007-2-5-05 project), the Comissionat per a Universitats i Recerca, del Departament d'Innovació, Universitats i Empresa de la Generalitat de Catalunya (AGAUR) and the European Social Fund for their financial support. The authors also are grateful for the support by a research grant for young scientist awarded by the Institute DANONE. We also thank Bayer CropScience S.L., Sipcam Inagra S.A. and Basf Española S.L. for supplying of the antifungals. The authors are also grateful to Dr. Rivas-Gonzalo (Grupo de Investigación en Polifenoles, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Salamanca, Spain) for the analysis of E. arvense extract.ca_ES
dc.relation.isformatofReproducció del document publicat a https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2012.08.001ca_ES
dc.relation.ispartofInternational Journal of Food Microbiology, 2012, vol. 159, núm. 2, p. 167-176ca_ES
dc.rights(c) Elsevier B.V., 2012ca_ES
dc.subjectOchratoxin Aca_ES
dc.subjectEnvironmental conditionsca_ES
dc.titleEffect of preharvest anti-fungal compounds on Aspergillus steynii and A. carbonarius under fluctuating and extreme environmental conditionsca_ES
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