Hybrid sausages: modelling the effect of partial meat replacement with broccoli, upcycled brewer's spent grain and insect flours
The social, environmental and health concerns associated with the massive consumption of meat products has resulted in calls for a reduction in meat consumption. A simplex lattice design was used for studying the effect of combining broccoli, upcycled brewer’s spent grain (BSG) and insect flours from Tenebrio molitor (IF) as alternative sources of protein and micronutrients, in hybrid sausages formulation. The techno-functional properties of the ingredients and the nutritional and textural properties of nine hybrid sausages were analysed. The effect of adding these ingredients (constituting 35% of a turkey-based sausage) on protein, fat, fibre, iron and zinc content, and textural properties (Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) and Warner–Bratzler parameters) were modelled employing linear regression (0.72 < R2 < 1). The “desirability” function was used for multi-response optimisation of the samples for the highest protein content, optimum chewiness and a* value (closeness to red). The analysis of sensory data for the three optimised samples showed no significant differences in juiciness and odour between the hybrid meat sausage with 22% broccoli, 3% BSG, and 10% IF and the commercial Bratwurst sausage elaborated exclusively with animal protein. Colour, appearance, chewiness and pastiness were rated higher than for the reference. The instrumental chewiness highly correlated with sensorial chewiness (R2 = 0.98). Thus, a strategy introducing less refined and more sustainable sources of protein and micronutrients was successfully employed to model and statistically optimise a meat product formulation with reduced animal protein content.
Journal or Serie
Foods, 2002, vol.11, núm. 21, p. 1-18