Ultraviolet applications to control patulin produced by penicillium expansum CMP-1 in Apple products and study of further patulin degradation products formation and toxicity
Patulin is a mycotoxin whose presence in apple-derived products and fruit juices is legally regulated, being its maximum limits established in the legislation of multiple countries. However, the management of contaminated batches is still an issue for producers. This investigation aims to evaluate ultraviolet light (254 nm, UV-C254nm) irradiation to find solutions that can be applied at different stages of the apple juice production chain. In this regard, 8.8 (UV-1) and 35.1 (UV-2) kJ m−2 treatments inactivated spores of Penicillium expansum CMP-1 on the surface of apples. Although the same treatments applied to wounded apples (either before the infection or after the infection, immediately or when the lesion had appeared) did not show any effect on the growth rate of P. expansum during storage (up to 14 days, at 4 or 25 °C), they reduced patulin content per lesion size in apples treated after the infection had occurred (patulin decreased from 2.24 (control) to 0.65 µg kg−1 cm−2 (UV-2 treated apples)). Additionally, the treatment of juice with patulin with ultraviolet light up to 450.6 kJ m−2 resulted in more than 98 % reduction of patulin. Degradation products of patulin after UV-C254nm treatments were tentatively identified by HPLC–MS, and toxicity and biological activities were assessed in silico, and results indicated that such products did not pose an increased risk when compared to patulin.
Journal or Serie
Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2022