The Environmental Impact of Major Sport Events (Giga, Mega and Major): A Systematic Review from 2000 to 2021

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Cerezo Esteve, Sergi
Inglés Yuba, Eduard
Seguí Urbaneja, Jordi
Solanellas, Francesc
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cc-by (c) Sergi Cerezo-Esteve, 2022
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In the context of the Sustainable Development Goals interest and concerns about the environmental impact of major sporting events have become increasingly widespread, voiced not only by organizers, but also spectators and residents of affected areas, as well politicians and institutional representatives of the host territories. There are multiple studies of the economic, social, and legal impacts of major sport events. Although several studies have pointed to a range of environmental impacts, there is no clear consensus on the effects that a major event can have on the natural environment. Thus, the aim of this article is to carry out a systematic review of the state of the art. Following the steps proposed by the PRISMA protocol, a selection of scientific articles from between 2000 and 2021 was made. The overall analysis shows that the negatives outweigh the positives, as only 32.91% of the effects described in the articles are deemed to be positive, with 62.03% deemed to be negative, and finally, 5.06% found to be inconclusive. With varying degrees of success, organizers and promoters of major events are already attempting measures to reduce negative impacts and enhance positive ones.
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Sustainability, 2022, vol. 14, núm. 20, 13581