Influenza D Virus: What about its role in the Bovine Respiratory Syndrome?

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Ruiz, Miguel
Puig, Andrea
Bassols, Marta
Fraile Sauce, Lorenzo JoséFraile Sauce, Lorenzo José - ORCID ID
Armengol Gelonch, RamonArmengol Gelonch, Ramon - ORCID ID
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cc-by (c) Ruiz et al., 2022
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Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is one of the most prevalent, deadly, and costly diseases in young cattle. BRD has been recognized as a multifactorial disease caused mainly by viruses (bovine herpesvirus, BVDV, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus, and bovine coronavirus) and bacteria (Mycoplasma bovis, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Histophilus somni). However, other microorganisms have been recognized to cause BRD. Influenza D virus (IDV) is a novel RNA pathogen belonging to the family Orthomyxoviridae, first discovered in 2011. It is distributed worldwide in cattle, the main reservoir. IDV has been demonstrated to play a role in BRD, with proven ability to cause respiratory disease, a high transmission rate, and potentiate the effects of other pathogens. The transmission mechanisms of this virus are by direct contact and by aerosol route over short distances. IDV causes lesions in the upper respiratory tract of calves and can also replicate in the lower respiratory tract and cause pneumonia. There is currently no commercial vaccine or specific treatment for IDV. It should be noted that IDV has zoonotic potential and could be a major public health concern if there is a drastic change in its pathogenicity to humans. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding IDV structure, pathogenesis, clinical significance, and epidemiology.
Journal or Serie
Viruses-Basel, 2022, vol. 14 (12), p. 1-18