Clinical overview of luteal deficiency in dairy cattle
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Luteal deficiency is defined as reduced progesterone (P4) steroidogenesis by the corpus luteum (CL), either in the amount or duration, or both. This work provides a clinical overview of the current understanding of luteal deficiency and its association with low fertility in dairy cows. Low plasma P4 concentrations during the luteal phase post-artificial insemination (AI) are associated with lower conception rates. Treatments post-AI with P4, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) improve fertility in some conditions. Sub-luteal function during the late embryonic period (at pregnancy diagnosis, i.e., 28–34 days post-AI), is just one factor among other factors associated with pregnancy loss. Treatment with P4 in cows with one CL favors pregnancy maintenance, while GnRH treatment does the same in cows carrying twins. The diagnosis of sub-luteal function can be made clinically on the basis of plasma or milk P4 concentrations. Automated in-line milk P4 analysis systems to diagnose luteal activity emerge as a very interesting tool in dairy herds. Monitoring plasma or milk P4 concentrations with the help of Doppler ultrasonography to assess the CL function would allow individualizing the luteal phase support.
Is part ofAnimals, 2022, vol. 12, núm. 1871, p. 1-7
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