Technological Tools for the Early Detection of Bovine Respiratory Disease in Farms
Classically, the diagnosis of respiratory disease in cattle has been based on observation of clinical signs and the behavior of the animals, but this technique can be subjective, time-consuming and labor intensive. It also requires proper training of staff and lacks sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). Furthermore, respiratory disease is diagnosed too late, when the animal already has severe lesions. A total of 104 papers were included in this review. The use of new advanced technologies that allow early diagnosis of diseases using real-time data analysis may be the future of cattle farms. These technologies allow continuous, remote, and objective assessment of animal behavior and diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease with improved Se and Sp. The most commonly used behavioral variables are eating behavior and physical activity. Diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease may experience a significant change with the help of big data combined with machine learning, and may even integrate metabolomics as disease markers. Advanced technologies should not be a substitute for practitioners, farmers or technicians, but could help achieve a much more accurate and earlier diagnosis of respiratory disease and, therefore, reduce the use of antibiotics, increase animal welfare and sustainability of livestock farms. This review aims to familiarize practitioners and farmers with the advantages and disadvantages of the advanced technological diagnostic tools for bovine respiratory disease and introduce recent clinical applications.
Journal or Serie
Animals, 2022, vol. 12, art. 2623.