Current status of herbicide resistance in the iberian peninsula: future trends and challenges
Montull Daniel, José María
Calha, Isabel M.
Osuna, María D.
Prado, Rafael de
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The evolution of herbicide resistance in weeds has emerged as one of the most serious threats to sustainable food production systems, which necessitates the evaluation of herbicides to determine their efficacy. The first herbicide resistance case in the Iberian Peninsula was reported about 50 years ago, wherein Panicum dichotomiflorum was found to be resistant (R) to atrazine in Spanish maize fields. Since then, herbicide resistance has evolved in 33 weed species, representing a total of 77 single-herbicide-resistance cases in this geographic area: 66 in Spain and 11 in Portugal. Changes in agricultural practices, namely the adoption of non-tillage systems and the increased use of herbicides, led to the selection of weed biotypes resistant to a wide range of herbicides. Nowadays the most important crops in Spain and Portugal (maize, winter cereals, rice, citrus, fruits, and olive orchards) are affected, with biotypes resistant to several mechanisms of action (MoAs), namely: ALS inhibitors (20 species), ACCase inhibitors (8 species), PS II inhibitors (18 species), and synthetic auxin herbicides (3 species). More recently, the fast increase in cases of resistance to the EPSPS-inhibiting herbicide glyphosate has been remarkable, with 11 species already having evolved resistance in the last 10 years in the Iberian Peninsula. The diversity of resistance mechanisms, both target-site and non-target-site, are responsible for the resistance to different MoAs, involving point mutations in the target site and enhanced rates of herbicide detoxification, respectively. More serious are the 13 cases reported with multiple-herbicide resistance, with three cases of resistance to three–four MoAs, and one case of resistance to five MoAs. Future research perspectives should further study the relationship between management strategies and the occurrence of TSR and NTSR resistance, to improve their design, develop monitoring and diagnostic tools for herbicide resistance, and deepen the study of NTSR resistance.
Is part ofAgronomy, 2022, vol. 12, núm. 4, p. 1-18 p
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