Apophysitis Among Male Youth Soccer Players at an Elite Soccer Academy Over 7 Seasons

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Gudelis, Mindaugas
Til Perez, Lluis
Trujillano Cabello, JavierTrujillano Cabello, Javier - ORCID ID
Medina Leal, Daniel
Monaco, Mauricio
Sugimoto, Dai
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cc-by-nc-nd (c)Authors, 2022
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Background: Apophyseal injuries are common in children and adolescent athletes. These injuries a believed to be caused by repetitive overloading, which can create inflammatory and degenerative conditions in growing bone prominences. However, their prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment in young soccer players have been understudied. Purpose: To evaluate characteristics of apophyseal injuries in adolescent athletes at an elite soccer academy. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: All apophyseal injuries between July 2008 and June 2015 were evaluated. For each injury, the authors recorded the type and location, age of the player, injury date, imaging modalities, and time absent from training/competition. Results: Over the 7 seasons of this study, 210 apophyseal injuries were documented, including 172 simple apophyseal injuries and 38 apophyseal avulsion fractures. The rate of apophyseal injuries was 0.35 per 1000 hours of training exposure. A total of 196 (93.3%) cases were primary injuries, and the rest (6.7%) were reinjuries. Ultrasonography was the most commonly used imaging modality for diagnosis (172 cases; 81.9%). The most common location of apophyseal injuries was the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS). Return to sport was faster in athletes with apophyseal injury at the ischiopubic ramus, those with simple apophyseal injuries, and younger athletes. Conclusion: The most common location for apophyseal injury among soccer players was the AIIS. Return to training and competition differed according to injury location, type of apophyseal injury, and age.
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Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 2022, vol. 10, núm. 1