Relevant Fusarium mycotoxins in malt and beer
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Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites of high concern in the food and feed industry. Their presence in many cereal-based products has been numerously reported. Beer is the most consumed alcoholic beverage worldwide, and Fusarium mycotoxins originating from the malted and unmalted cereals might reach the final product. This review aims to describe the possible Fusarium fungi that could infect the cereals used in beer production, the transfer of mycotoxins throughout malting and brewing as well as an insight into the incidence of mycotoxins in the craft beer segment of the industry. Studies show that germination is the malting step that can lead to a significant increase in the level of all Fusarium mycotoxins. The first step of mashing (45 oC) has been proven to possess the most significant impact in the transfer of hydrophilic toxins from the grist into the wort. However, during fermentation, a slight reduction of deoxynivalenol, and especially of zearalenone, is achieved. This review also highlights the limited research available on craft beer and the occurrence of mycotoxins in these products.