Benchmarking of energy demand of domestic and small business buildings
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Rapid expansion of solar thermal energy for increasing energy efficiency of buildings has been adopted in short/medium and long-term energy strategies of EU countries. This enhancement of energy efficiency in buildings is in line with regional actions with the European climate energy objectives as defined in the European Union’s “20-20-20” targets and in the European Commission’s Energy Roadmap 2050. Within this context, the overall objective of this work is to develop an innovative high performance and cost effective hybrid solar heat and power system, which consist in a novel flat Fresnel mirror solar concentrating collector and micro organic Rankine cycle plant combined with advanced phase change materials as thermal storage, all system managed by smart control units. The initial application is to be implemented in individual dwellings and small business residential buildings for on-site electricity and heat generation using solar thermal energy. It is estimated that the proposed technology will deliver 60% of domestic energy requirements and provide 20% reduction in energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions compared to the best existing low carbon energy technologies. To reach the main objectives, the first step consist in providing information on features of architecture of domestic and small business residential buildings and their annual energy demands for different countries such as: Spain, France Germany, Italy, and United Kingdom. This will include detailed building information of envelopes (walls, roof, lofts, etc.), structure, fabric, and results of energy demands (domestic hot water, space heating and electricity) for the abovementioned countries. This information will be used as input data during the development of this technology as it will point out the potential benefits of the system in different countries, climates, and building typologies.