Obesity attenuates the effect of sleep apnea on active TGF-ß1 levels and tumor aggressiveness in patients with melanoma
Martínez‑García, Miguel Ángel
Hernández Blasco, Luis
Montserrat, Josep Maria
García Río, Francisco
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Active transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a cytokine partially regulated by hypoxia and obesity, has been related with poor prognosis in several tumors. We determine whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) increases serum levels of active TGF-β1 in patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM), assess their relationship with melanoma aggressiveness and analyze the factors related to TGF-β1 levels in obese and non-obese OSA patients. In a multicenter observational study, 290 patients with CM were underwent sleep studies. TGF-β1 was increased in moderate-severe OSA patients vs. non-OSA or mild OSA patients with CM. In OSA patients, TGF-β1 levels correlated with mitotic index, Breslow index and melanoma growth rate, and were increased in presence of ulceration or higher Clark levels. In CM patients, OSA was associated with higher TGF-β1 levels and greater melanoma aggressiveness only in non-obese subjects. An in vitro model showed that IH-induced increases of TGF-β1 expression in melanoma cells is attenuated in the presence of high leptin levels. In conclusion, TGF-β1 levels are associated with melanoma aggressiveness in CM patients and increased in moderate-severe OSA. Moreover, in non-obese patients with OSA, TGF-β1 levels correlate with OSA severity and leptin levels, whereas only associate with leptin levels in obese OSA patients.
Is part ofScientific Reports, 2020, vol. 10, núm. 15528
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