Germination behaviour of Conyza bonariensis to constant and alternating temperatures across different populations
Data de publicació2019-11-05
Supiciche, María L.
Chantre, Guillermo R.
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Conyza bonariensis is one of the most problematic weed species throughout the world. It is considered highly noxious due to its interference with human activities, and especially the competition it poses with economically important crops. This research investigated the temperature requirements for seed germination of four populations of C. bonariensis with distinct origin and the influence of daily alternating temperatures. For this, a set of germination tests were performed in growth chambers to explore the effect of constant and alternating temperatures. Seeds of the four populations (from Lleida, Badajoz and Seville, Spain and Bahía Blanca, Argentina) were maintained at constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 35°C. The final germination and cardinal temperatures (base, optimum and maximum) of each population were obtained. We also tested the influence of daily alternating temperatures on final germination. To do so, seeds were exposed to two temperature regimes: 5/15, 10/20, 15/25, 20/30 and 25/35°C night/day temperature (intervals increasing 5°C, with constant oscillation of 10°C) and to 18/22, 16/24, 14/26, 12/28 and 10/30°C night/day temperature (intervals with average of 20°C, but increasing the oscillation in 4°C between intervals). In general, all populations behaved similarly, with the highest germination percentages occurring in the optimum temperature range (between 21.7°C and 22.3°C) for both constant and alternating temperatures. In general, climatic origin affected germination response, where seeds obtained from the coldest origin exhibited the highest germination percentage at the lowest temperature assayed. In addition, we observed that the alternating temperatures can positively affect total germination, especially in oscillations that were further from the average optimum temperature (20°C), with high germination percentage for the oscillations of 15/25, 20/30, 18/22, 16/24, 14/26, 12/28 and 10/30°C in all populations. The cardinal temperatures obtained were significantly different across the populations. These results provide information that will facilitate a better understanding of the behaviour of Conyza and improve current field emergence models.