Resistance of Spanish codling moth (Cydia pomonella) populations to insecticides and activity of detoxifying enzymatic systems
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Resistance of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to insecticides has become a major problem in many apple and pear production areas. Our aim was to determine the level of insecticide resistance in Spanish field populations. Seven field populations collected from apple, Malus
domestica Borkhausen (Rosaceae), orchards and three laboratory susceptible strains of codling moth were studied. Damage at harvest in all the conventional orchards from which codling moth populations were collected was higher than the economic threshold. The efficacy of eight insecticides, with five modes of action, was evaluated by topical application of the diagnostic concentrations on post-diapausing larvae. The enzymatic activity of mixed-function oxidases (MFOs), glutathione transferases (GSTs), and esterases (ESTs) was evaluated for each population. The susceptibility to insecticides and the biochemical activity of the three laboratory strains and one organic orchard population were not significantly different. Field populations were less susceptible to the tested insecticides than the susceptible strains, especially for azinphos-methyl, diflubenzuron, fenoxycarb, and phosalone. The efficacy of all insecticides was significantly dependent on the activity of MFOs. Only the toxicity of the three insecticides most used in Spain when the populations were collected (azinphos-methyl, fenoxycarb, and phosalone) was also dependent on the activity of ESTs and GSTs activity. According to our results, the control failures were due to the existence of populations resistant to the main insecticides used.