Phenomenological modelling of phase transitions with hysteresis in solid/liquid PCM
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Technical-grade and mixed solid/liquid phase change materials (PCM) typically melt and solidify over a temperature range, sometimes exhibiting thermal hysteresis. Three phenomenological phase transition models are presented which are directly parametrized using data from complete melting and solidification
experiments. They predict hysteresis phenomena and are used to calculate effective PCM properties. Two models have already been implemented in commercial building simulation and/or multiphysics software, but not the third novel model. Applications are presented for two commercial PCM: a paraffin, and a salt water mixture with additives. Numerical implementation aspects are discussed, and significant differences in the predicted absorbed and released heat are highlighted when simulating consecutive incomplete phase transitions. The models are linked with energy balance equations to predict recorded PCM temperatures of a thermal energy storage. The cross-validation with data from 26 partial load conditions clearly indicate a superior predictive performance of the novel hysteresis model.