Assessment of spray drift potential reduction for hollow-cone nozzles: Part 2. LiDAR technique
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Pesticide spray drift poses health hazards to humans and causes a significant impact on the environment. In this work the capacity of an ad hoc light detection and ranging (LiDAR) system to differentiate spray nozzles according to their potential drift risk is evaluated for the first time. A total of 23 drift potential tests using 10 hollow-cone nozzles were carried out with the sprayer kept in a static position. Drift potential reduction (DPR) values of between 88.6% and 93.6% were obtained when comparing standard and drift reduction nozzle types. It was also possible to order different standard nozzle sizes according to their DPR. The LiDAR signalwas correlated with several droplet size parametersmeasured by a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA), being V100 the best indicator. In the four field tests thatwere performed, the LiDAR systemwas also able to differentiate between standard and drift reduction nozzles under real application conditions, obtaining a DPR of 56.7%. The results of this work demonstrate that the developed LiDAR system is an advantageous alternative for the assessment of drift potential reduction.
Is part ofScience of the Total Environment, 2019, vol. 687, p. 967-977
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