Frecuency and levels of mycotoxins in beer from the Mexican market and exposure estimate for deoxynivalenol mycotoxins
Wall-Martinez, Hiram A.
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of 23 mycotoxins in beer purchased in Mexico and to assess 14 two exposure scenarios in the Mexican population through beer consumption. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of a total of 61 15 different beers (132 samples) was carried out using UHPLC-MS/MS
equipment. Probability density functions were used to 16 describe mycotoxins contamination. The daily intake of mycotoxins was estimated using a semi-probabilistic approach, 17 applying the Monte Carlo method. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolites (deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON3G) and 18 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) were the mycotoxins found in higher proportions in contaminated samples. None of the 19 other mycotoxins overpassed the limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method. The combined intake of DON and its 20 analogues ranged from 5.24 to 86.59 ng kg-1 bw day-1, which represent from 1.20 to 19.83 % of the DON TDI. The results 21 suggest that depending on the individual consumption of beer and depending on the type of beer, the intake of DON via 22 beer could represent a significant percentage of the tolerable daily intake (TDI).