Bioaccessibility, physicochemical, sensorial, and nutritional characteristics of bread containing broccoli co‐products
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The effects of the inclusion of industrial broccoli co‐products namely stalks and leaves into bread on physicochemical and nutritional properties were evaluated. Incorporation of powdered broccoli co‐products at a concentration of 2% (w/w) into bread formulations resulted in decreased weight and specific
volumes when compared to the control (p < 0.05). Broccoli‐containing breads showed an increased green hue and a higher crust and crumb color intensity (p < 0.05). Incorporation of broccoli co‐products into bread formulations significantly increased the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the breads (p < 0.05). The overall acceptance and appearance of the breads were not affected by broccoli incorporation. The phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of the three formulations increased after the gastric and intestinal phases of digestion when compared to the initial stage, measured from a methanol:water extract (p < 0.05). Results obtained herein could open novel commercial opportunities for food processors and reduce the amount of food discarded as waste.