The fate of deoxynivalenol and ochratoxin A during the breadmaking process, effects of sourdough use and bran content
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Deoxynivalenol (DON) and ochratoxin A (OTA) are mycotoxins produced by fungal species which can contaminate, alone or simultaneously, cereal-based products such as bread. Due to the increasing interest in the beneficial effects of dietary bran, bran bread has attained high consumption. Usually, the higher mycotoxin concentrations in cereals are found in the external layers of the grain (bran), leading to higher concentration of DON and OTA in breads with added bran. Moreover, the use of sourdough in breadmaking is increasing, but no studies about its effect in the mycotoxins content exist. The objective of this study was to determine the variation of concentration of these mycotoxins during the breadmaking process including the following factors: two initial mycotoxin concentrations in the initial mix of ingredients, four different bran contents, and use of sourdough. OTA was confirmed to be quite stable during the breadmaking process, regardless of the assayed factors. DON concentration during breadmaking was not significantly affected by bran content of bread. However, it was significantly affected by kneading and fermentation steps in opposite way depending on sourdough use and flour contamination level: if DON reduction occurs during fermentation, this leads to a safer situation, but the possible increase in DON should be considered with care, as it can compensate the expected dilution effect by recipe. Finally, the results on deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (DON-3-G), although preliminar, suggest an increase of this toxin during fermentation, but mainly during baking.