Effects of thermal and non-thermal processing of cruciferous vegetables on glucosinolates and its derived forms
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Brassica vegetables, which include broccoli, kale, cauliflower, and Brussel sprouts, are known for their high glucosinolate content. Glucosinolates and their derived forms namely isothiocyanates are of special interest in the pharmaceutical and food industries due to their antimicrobial, neuroprotective, and anticarcinogenic properties. These compounds are water soluble and heat-sensitive and have been proved to be heavily lost during thermal processing. In addition, previous studies suggested that novel non-thermal technologies such as high pressure processing, pulsed electric fields, or ultraviolet irradiation can affect the glucosinolate content of cruciferous vegetables. The objective of this paper was to review current knowledge about the effects of both thermal and non-thermal processing technologies on the content of glucosinolates and their derived forms in brassica vegetables. This paper also highlights the importance of the incorporation of brassica vegetables into our diet for their health-promoting properties beyond their anticarcinogenic activities.