Combining the bulk transfer formulation and surface renewal analysis for estimating the sensible heat flux without involving the parameter KB-1
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The single‐source bulk transfer formulation (based on the Monin‐Obukhov Similarity Theory, MOST) has been used to estimate the sensible heat flux, H, in the framework of remote sensing over homogeneous surfaces (HMOST). The latter involves the canopy parameter, , which is difficult to parameterize. Over short and dense grass at a site influenced by regional advection of sensible heat flux, HMOST with = 2 (i.e., the value recommended) correlated strongly with the H measured using the Eddy Covariance, EC, method, HEC. However, it overestimated HEC by 50% under stable conditions for samples showing a local air temperature gradient larger than the measurement error, 0.4 km−1. Combining MOST and Surface Renewal analysis, three methods of estimating H that avoid dependency have been derived. These new expressions explain the variability of H versus , where is the friction velocity, is the radiometric surface temperature, and is the air temperature at height, z. At two measurement heights, the three methods performed excellently. One of the methods developed required the same readily/commonly available inputs as HMOST due to the fact that the ratio between and the ramp amplitude was found fairly constant under stable and unstable cases. Over homogeneous canopies, at a site influenced by regional advection of sensible heat flux, the methods proposed are an alternative to the traditional bulk transfer method because they are reliable, exempt of calibration against the EC method, and are comparable or identical in cost of application. It is suggested that the methodology may be useful over bare soil and sparse vegetation.