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dc.contributor.authorPearson, Holly B. C.
dc.contributor.authorGalceran i Nogués, Josep
dc.contributor.authorCompanys Ferran, Encarnació
dc.contributor.authorBraungardt,Charlotte B.
dc.contributor.authorWorsfold,Paul
dc.contributor.authorPuy Llorens, Jaume
dc.contributor.authorComber, Sean
dc.date.accessioned2018-10-30T12:36:51Z
dc.date.available2018-10-30T12:36:51Z
dc.date.issued2016-03-17
dc.identifier.issn0003-2670
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10459.1/65006
dc.description.abstractZinc (Zn) has been classified as a 'Specific Pollutant' under Annex VIII of the EU Water Framework Directive by two thirds of the EU member states. As a result, the UK Environmental Quality Standard (EQS) for Transitional and Coastal (TrAC) Waters has been reduced from 612 nM to 121 nM total dissolved Zn. It is widely accepted that the free metal ion ([Zn2+]) is the most bioavailable fraction, but there are few techniques available to determine its concentration in these waters. In this work, Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES) has been applied, for the first time, to determine [Zn2+] in estuarine waters. The AGNES method had a mean RSD of +/- 18%, a (deposition time dependent) limit of detection of 0.73 nM and a [Zn2+] recovery of 112 +/- 19% from a certified reference material (BCR-505; Estuarine Water). AGNES results for 13 estuarine samples (salinity 0.1-31.9) compared well (P = 0.02) with Competitive Ligand Exchange Cathodic Stripping Voltammetry (CLE-AdCSV) except for one sample. AGNES requires minimal sample manipulation, is unaffected by adsorption of interfering species at the electrode surface and allows direct determination of free zinc ion concentrations. Therefore AGNES results can be used in conjunction with ecotoxicological studies and speciation modelling to set and test compliance with water quality standards.
dc.description.sponsorshipThis PhD research is co-funded by the International Zinc Association, the International Copper Association, and Plymouth University. Warm thanks to Dr. Chris Cooper for his helpful comments, and to Marjan Heidarkhan Tehrani and Mireia Lao Martinez for their invaluable help and advice in the laboratory.
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherElsevier
dc.relation.isformatofVersió postprint del document publicat a: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.01.035
dc.relation.ispartofAnalytica Chimica Acta, 2016, vol. 912, p. 32-40
dc.rightscc-by-nc-nd (c) Elsevier, 2016
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/es
dc.subjectZinc
dc.subjectFree ion
dc.subjectAGNES
dc.subjectEstuarine water
dc.titleAbsence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping (AGNES) for the determination of [Zn2+] in estuarine waters
dc.typeinfo:eu-repo/semantics/article
dc.date.updated2018-10-30T12:36:54Z
dc.identifier.idgrec024127
dc.type.versioninfo:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccess
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2016.01.035


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cc-by-nc-nd (c) Elsevier, 2016
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as cc-by-nc-nd (c) Elsevier, 2016