Free indium concentration determined with AGNES
Tehrani, Marjan H.
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Indium is increasingly used in electronic devices, from which it can be mobilized towards environmental compartments. Speciation of In in waters is important for its direct ecotoxicological effects, as well as for the fate of this element in the environment (e.g. fluxes from or towards sediments). Free indium concentrations in the environment can be extremely low due to hydrolysis, especially important in trivalent cations, to precipitation and to complexation with different ligands. In this work, the free indium concentration (which is a toxicologically and geochemically relevant fraction) in aqueous solutions at pH 3 has been measured with an adapted version of the electroanalytical technique AGNES (Absence of Gradients and Nernstian Equilibrium Stripping). Speciation measurements in mixtures of indium with the ligands NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) and oxalate indicate that the values of their stability constants in the NIST46.6 database are less adequate than those published in some more recent literature. The extraordinary lability and mobility of In-oxalate complexes allow the measuring of free indium concentrations below nanomol/liter in just 25 s of deposition time.
Is part ofScience of the Total Environment, 2018, vol. 612, p. 269-275
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