Immigrants' employment in Spanish Cooperatives: outcomes in relation to the business cycle
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In this paper, we analyse the interaction between immigrants' employment in cooperatives and the business cycle. The study is centred on the Spanish economy during the period 2003-2015. The main goal of this paper is to answer the following two key questions: are fluctuations in immigrants' employment in cooperatives cyclical in relation to the business cycle? And, are immigrant employees more vulnerable to the business cycle than native employees? The cycles and their turning points are identified using the Bry and Boschan (Cyclical analysis of time series: selected procedures and computer programmes, National Bureau of Economic Research, New York, 1971) algorithm. To resolve it we employ the BUSY software, developed by the European Commission. The procedure allows us to identify the features of the cycle phases and to calculate the synchronization index. The results show that (1) employment in cooperatives is procyclical and with no differences between immigrant and native workers, (2) the economic crisis has hit immigrant workers harder than native ones, (3) the immigrants' birthplace is significant because some cyclical behaviour can be found to vary according to the immigrants' origins; however, in general, sensitivity to the business cycle is the common factor.