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dc.contributor.authorCastaño Soler, Carles
dc.contributor.authorOliva Palau, Jonàs
dc.contributor.authorMartínez de Aragón, Juan
dc.contributor.authorAlday, Josu G.
dc.contributor.authorParladé Izquierdo, Xavier
dc.contributor.authorPera i Álvarez, Joan
dc.contributor.authorBonet Lledos, José Antonio
dc.date.accessioned2018-04-17T07:49:03Z
dc.date.available2018-04-17T07:49:03Z
dc.date.issued2017
dc.identifier.issn0099-2240
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10459.1/63106
dc.description.abstractABSTRACT Obtaining reliable and representative mushroom production data requires time-consuming sampling schemes. In this paper, we assessed a simple methodology to detect mushroom emergence by trapping the fungal spores of the fruiting body community in plots where mushroom production was determined weekly. We compared the performance of filter paper traps with that of funnel traps and combined these spore trapping methods with species-specific quantitative real-time PCR and Illumina MiSeq to determine the spore abundance. Significantly more MiSeq proportional reads were generated for both ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal species using filter traps than were obtained using funnel traps. The spores of 37 fungal species that produced fruiting bodies in the study plots were identified. Spore community composition changed considerably over time due to the emergence of ephemeral fruiting bodies and rapid spore deposition (lasting from 1 to 2 weeks), which occurred in the absence of rainfall events. For many species, the emergence of epigeous fruiting bodies was followed by a peak in the relative abundance of their airborne spores. There were significant positive relationships between fruiting body yields and spore abundance in time for five of seven fungal species. There was no relationship between fruiting body yields and their spore abundance at plot level, indicating that some of the spores captured in each plot were arriving from the surrounding areas. Differences in fungal detection capacity by spore trapping may indicate different dispersal ability between fungal species. Further research can help to identify the spore rain patterns for most common fungal species. IMPORTANCE Mushroom monitoring represents a serious challenge in economic and logistical terms because sampling approaches demand extensive field work at both the spatial and temporal scales. In addition, the identification of fungal taxa depends on the expertise of experienced fungal taxonomists. Similarly, the study of fungal dispersal has been constrained by technological limitations, especially because the morphological identification of spores is a challenging and time-consuming task. Here, we demonstrate that spores from ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal species can be identified using simple spore traps together with either MiSeq fungus-specific amplicon sequencing or species-specific quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, the proposed methodology can be used to characterize the airborne fungal community and to detect mushroom emergence in forest ecosystems.ca_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipWe are very grateful to the PNIN of Poblet for supporting the process of installing and maintaining the experimental plots. We also thank Katarina Ihrmark and Johanna Boberg for providing the protocol and for advice on how to process and analyze the spore trap samples. We thank Josep Miró and Francesc Bolaño for their assistance with collecting the spore trap and fruiting body samples. We thank Caroline Woods for linguistic revision and for helping to clarify the manuscript. This work was supported by an STSM grant from COST Action FP1203 and by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) through the projects MICOGEST AGL2012-40035-C03 and MYCOSYSTEMS AGL2015-66001-C3. Carles Castaño received the support of the Secretaria d’Universitats i Recerca del Departament d’Economia i Coneixement de la Generalitat de Catalunya through the program of Doctorats Industrials. José Antonio Bonet is supported by the Serra-Hunter fellowship, and Josu G. Alday is supported by the Juan de la Cierva fellowship (IJCI-2014-21393). The funders had no role in the study design, data collection, and interpretation, or in the decision to submit the work for publication.ca_ES
dc.language.isoengca_ES
dc.publisherAmerican Society for Microbiologyca_ES
dc.relationMICINN/PN2008-2011/AGL2012-40035-C03ca_ES
dc.relationMINECO/PN2013-2016/AGL2015-66001-C3ca_ES
dc.relation.isformatofVersió postprint del document publicat a https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00600-17ca_ES
dc.relation.ispartofApplied and Environmental Microbiology, 2017, vol. 83, núm. 13, p. e00600-17ca_ES
dc.rights(c) American Society for Microbiology, 2017ca_ES
dc.subjectPropagulesca_ES
dc.subjectEctomycorrhizalca_ES
dc.subjectSaprotrophca_ES
dc.subjectDNA barcodingca_ES
dc.subjectMolecular identificationca_ES
dc.subjectDispersionca_ES
dc.subjectFungica_ES
dc.subjectLactariusca_ES
dc.titleMushroom emergence detected by combining spore trapping with molecular techniquesca_ES
dc.typearticleca_ES
dc.identifier.idgrec025720
dc.type.versionacceptedVersionca_ES
dc.rights.accessRightsinfo:eu-repo/semantics/openAccessca_ES
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00600-17


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