In vitro bioaccessibility of colored carotenoids in tomato derivatives as affected by ripeness stage and the addition of different types of oil
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The simultaneous effect of tomato ripeness stage (mature green, pink and red-ripe), mechanical processing (dicing and grinding) and oil addition (coconut, sunflower and olive oils) on the amount and bioaccessible fraction of carotenoids were evaluated. Tomato products obtained from fruits at the most advanced ripeness stage exhibited the greatest values of both concentration and bioaccessible fraction of total carotenoids and lycopene. The type of processing also exerted an important influence on carotenoids content, as well as on its bioaccessibility. Thus, despite the concentration of carotenoids in tomato puree significantly decreased (36-59%), their bioaccessibility was greater (up to 2.54-fold increase) than in tomato cubes. Moreover, the addition of oil significantly improved the carotenoid bioaccessibility, especially when olive oil was added, reaching up to 21-fold increase with respect to samples without oil. The results obtained clearly indicate that carotenoids bioaccessibility of tomato derivatives was strongly influenced by the ripeness stage of the fruit, processing and the addition of oil.