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dc.contributor.authorRamos-Morales, Eva
dc.contributor.authorde la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel
dc.contributor.authorNash, Robert J.
dc.contributor.authorBraganca, Radek
dc.contributor.authorDuval, Stéphane
dc.contributor.authorBouillon, Marc E.
dc.contributor.authorLahmann, Martina
dc.contributor.authorNewbold, C. Jamie
dc.description.abstractThe antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (P<0.001). The combination of ivy and stevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (P<0.05). It was concluded that ivy saponins with stevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal effect in vivo.ca_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipThis work was financed by the Innovate UK project ªIvy for ruminantsº Ref: 101091. SD (DSM Nutritional Products Ltd.) and RN (PhytoQuest Ltd.) were part of the project consortium and they contributed to the conceptualization of the project as well as to the funding acquisition and revision of the manuscript (as described in the author's contributions.ca_ES
dc.publisherPublic Library of Scienceca_ES
dc.relation.isformatofReproducció del document publicat a
dc.relation.ispartofPlos One, 2017, vol. 12, núm. 9, p. 1-14ca_ES
dc.rightscc-by (c) Ramos-Morales et al., 2017ca_ES
dc.titleImproving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structureca_ES

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