Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure
Nash, Robert J.
Bouillon, Marc E.
Newbold, C. Jamie
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The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting iminosugars might potentially increase the effectiveness of saponins over time by preventing their deglycosylation in the rumen. Alternatively, modifying the structure of the saponins by substituting the sugar moiety with other small polar residues might maintain their activity as the sugar substitute would not be enzymatically cleaved. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the acute antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect over a 24 h incubation period using ivy saponins, a stevia extract rich in iminosugars, ivy saponins with stevia extract, and a chemically modified ivy saponin, hederagenin bis-succinate (HBS). The effects on fermentation parameters and rumen bacterial communities were also studied. Ivy saponins with stevia and HBS had a greater antiprotozoal effect than ivy saponins, and this effect was maintained after 24 h of incubation (P<0.001). The combination of ivy and stevia extracts was more effective in shifting the fermentation pattern towards higher propionate (+39%) and lower butyrate (-32%) and lower ammonia concentration (-64%) than the extracts incubated separately. HBS caused a decrease in butyrate (-45%) and an increase in propionate (+43%) molar proportions. However, the decrease in ammonia concentration (-42%) observed in the presence of HBS was less than that caused by ivy saponins, either alone or with stevia. Whereas HBS and stevia impacted on bacterial population in terms of community structure, only HBS had an effect in terms of biodiversity (P<0.05). It was concluded that ivy saponins with stevia and the modified saponin HBS had a strong antiprotozoal effect, although they differed in their effects on fermentation parameters and bacteria communities. Ivy saponins combined with an iminosugar-rich stevia extract and/or HBS should be evaluated to determine their antiprotozoal effect in vivo.
Is part ofPlos One, 2017, vol. 12, núm. 9, p. 1-14
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Antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen can be enhanced by chemical modifications in their structure Ramos-Morales, Eva; de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Duval, Stéphane; Wehrli, Christof; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Preskett, David; Braganca, Radek; Newbold, C. Jamie (Frontiers Media, 2017-02-27)The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to the sapogenin by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We postulated that the substitution of the sugar moiety of the saponin ...
Newbold, C. Jamie; de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Belanche, A.; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil (Frontiers, 2015-11-09)First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa ...
Ramos-Morales, Eva; Lyons, Laura; de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Braganca, Radek; Newbold, C. Jamie (Oxford University Press, 2019-07-04)The antiprotozoal effect of saponins varies according to both the structure of the sapogenin and the composition and linkage of the sugar moieties to the sapogenin. The effect of saponins on protozoa has been considered ...