Articles publicats (Grup de Recerca de Dinàmica Fluvial (RIUS))

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    Open Access
    Water microturbines for sustainable applications: optimization analysis and experimental validation
    (Springer Science and Business Media, 2023) Rodríguez-Pérez A.M.; Rodríguez-Gonzalez C.A.; López Alonso, Raúl; Hernández-Torres J.A.; Caparrós-Mancera J.J.
    The use of microturbines in irrigation applications represents a great opportunity for increasing sustainable energy generation. Irrigation systems have water flow that can be used to generate electricity based on microturbines that are acceptably configure such, that efficiency in crop irrigation is not affected. This research validates this use of microturbines through a system designed specifically for the characterization of microturbine generation technology. This system includes a closed water pumping circuit capable of working under, different water flow settings, as well as flow, pressure, and electricity generation sensors. For this system, the production range of the microturbines and the pressure loss associated with the various proposed configurations are characterized and specifically quantified for the best performance. After design and characterization of a scalable microturbine system, the feasibility and benefits of this application to supporting most relevant crops supplied by localized irrigation are analysed. The experiments demonstrate the greatest benefit with the implementation of 15 series microturbines each at 80 V, alongside non-Citrus fruit, where a favourable balance is achieved for the amortization period in vineyards and citrus fruit. The results validate a profitable and sustainable design for electricity generation, with return on investment rates of up to 53%. Therefore, this research offers real and extensive applications, while being scalable to rural, residential, urban and industrial settings.
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    Open Access
    100 key questions to guide hydropeaking research and policy
    (Elsevier, 2023-09-16) Hayes, Daniel S.; Bruno, M.C.; Alp, Maria; Boavida, Isabel; Batalla, Ramon J.; Bejarano, Maria Dolores; Noack, Markus; Vanzo, Davide; Casas Mulet, Roser; Vericat Querol, Damià; Carolli, Mauro; Tonolla, Diego; Halleraker, Jo Halvard; Gosselin, M. P.; Chiogna, Gabriele; Zolezzi, Guido; Venus, Terese
    As the share of renewable energy grows worldwide, flexible energy production from peak-operating hydropower and the phenomenon of hydropeaking have received increasing attention. In this study, we collected open research questions from 220 experts in river science, practice, and policy across the globe using an online survey available in six languages related to hydropeaking. We used a systematic method of determining expert consensus (Delphi method) to identify 100 high-priority questions related to the following thematic fields: (a) hydrology, (b) physico-chemical properties of water, (c) river morphology and sediment dynamics, (d) ecology and biology, (e) socio-economic topics, (f) energy markets, (g) policy and regulation, and (h) management and mitigation measures. The consensus list of high-priority questions shall inform and guide researchers in focusing their efforts to foster a better science-policy interface, thereby improving the sustainability of peak-operating hydropower in a variety of settings. We find that there is already a strong understanding of the ecological impact of hydropeaking and efficient mitigation techniques to support sustainable hydropower. Yet, a disconnect remains in its policy and management implementation.
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    Open Access
    A Finite element method integrated with Terzaghi's principle to estimate settlement of a building due to tunnel construction
    (MDPI, 2023-05-20) Rodríguez González, César Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ángel M.; López Alonso, Raúl; Hernández-Torres, Jose Antonio; Caparrós-Mancera, Julio Jose
    This study presents the application of the finite element method integrated with Terzaghi's principle. The definition of a model in oedometric or confinement conditions for settlement estimation of a building after the construction of a tunnel, including the effect of Terzaghi's principle, is an unresolved problem. The objectives of this work include the demonstration of the need for a minimum of three methodological states to estimate said settlement. For this, a specific methodology is applied to a case study, with eight load steps and four types of coarse-grained soils. In the studied case, two layers of 50 m and 5 m with different degrees of saturation are overlaying an assumed impermeable rock layer. The excavation of a tunnel of 15 m in diameter at a depth of 30 m with drainage lining inside the tunnel is assumed. The minimum distance from the tunnel's outline to the mat foundation is 15.8 m. It is determined that the settlement, according to Terzaghi's principle, is around 11% of the total settlement for the most compacted soil types, reaching 35% for the loose soil type, from the tunnel's outline. In the mat foundation, it implies an increase in the differential settlement of up to 12%. It shows a nonlinear relationship between some of the variables in the analysis. To detect the collapse due to uplifting the tunnel invert, it was determined that it was not appropriate to model in oedometric conditions. The novelty of the investigation relies on identifying and determining the need for a minimum of three states for methodological purposes for a proper quantification of the total settlement: (i) before the construction of the tunnel, (ii) immediately after the excavation of the tunnel, but without groundwater inflow into the tunnel, and (iii) after the tunnelling, with stabilised groundwater inflow into the tunnel.
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    Open Access
    Reconstrucción post-evento del flash-flood del 1 de septiembre de 2021 en Les Cases d’Alcanar (Tarragona)
    (Universitat Politècnica de València, 2023) Balasch Solanes, J. Carles (Josep Carles); Calvet, Jaume; Tuset Mestre, Jordi
    La crecida que se produjo el 1 de septiembre de 2021 en Les Cases d’Alcanar (Tarragona), es una de las de mayor magnitud del litoral mediterráneo occidental durante la época instrumental. Se ha realizado una reconstrucción post-evento determinando el caudal punta mediante el modelo hidráulico 2D IBER y la respuesta hidrológica de la cuenca a través del software hidrológico global HEC-HMS. Tras una lluvia de 251.9 mm en unas 3 horas, se estima que el pico fue de 159 m3·s-1 a la entrada de la población y el volumen de escorrentía fue de 1.15 hm3. El coeficiente de escorrentía alcanzó un valor de 0.76. Gran parte del desbordamiento en el núcleo poblado fue debido a la oclusión de los drenajes transversales al barranco y a la falta de capacidad de drenaje del canal. Los datos reconstruidos se consideran de un gran valor para la planificación de estructuras en cuencas pequeñas que carecen de datos de aforo.
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    Open Access
    Sensitivity analysis in mean annual sediment yield modeling with respect to rainfall probability distribution functions
    (MDPI, 2023-01) Rodríguez González, César Antonio; Rodríguez-Pérez, Ángel Mariano; López Alonso, Raúl; Hernández-Torres, Jose Antonio; Caparrós-Mancera, Julio Jose
    An accurate estimation of the mean annual sediment yield from basins contributes to optimizing water resources planning and management. More specifically, both reservoir sedimentation and the damage caused to infrastructures fall within its field of application. Through a simple probabilistic combination function implemented in hydrometeorological models, this sediment yield can be estimated on a planning and management scale for ungauged basins. This probabilistic combination methodology requires the use of probability distribution functions to model design storms. Within these functions, SQRT-ET max and log-Pearson type III are currently highlighted in applied hydrology. Although the Gumbel distribution is also relevant, its use has progressively declined, as it has been considered to underestimate precipitation depth and flow discharge for high return periods, compared to the SQRT-ET max and log-Pearson III functions. The quantification of sediment yield through hydrometeorological models will ultimately be affected by the choice of the probability distribution function. The following four different functions were studied: Gumbel type I with a small sample size, Gumbel type I with a large sample size, log-Pearson type III and SQRT-ET max. To illustrate this, the model with these four functions has been applied in the Alto Palmones basin (South Iberian Peninsula). In this paper, it is shown that the application of Gumbel function type I with a small sample size, for the estimation of the mean annual sediment yield, provides values on the conservative side, with respect to the SQRT-ET max and log-Pearson type III functions.