Impact of fungicides on Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A production on synthetic grape-like medium and on grapes
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A study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of the application of several fungicide treatments used in Spanish vines on Aspergillus carbonarius growth and ochratoxin A production. Three trials were designed in order: (1) to screen 26 fungicides at the doses recommended by manufacturers on grape-like synthetic medium at 20 and 30 C; (2) to find out the minimum inhibitory concentration of each fungicide for A. carbonarius growth on synthetic medium; and (3) to investigate the effect of several fungicides on A. carbonariu s-inoculated grapes. In synthetic medium nine fungicides significantly reduced A. carbonarius growth rate. Meanwhile, 13 fungicides completely inhibited its growth. In general, growth was faster at 30 C than at 20 C, contrary to ochratoxin A production. Fungicides that stopped fungal growth also inhibited ochratoxin A production, but not all the fungicides that reduced growth reduced the ochratoxin A synthesis. In general, fungicides that contained copper or strobilurins reduced both growth and ochratoxin A production, contrary to sulphur fungicides. At the optimum temperature for A. carbonarius growth of 30 C, higher amounts of fungicide were needed to prevent fungal growth than at 20 C. Among the fungicides that inhibited A. carbonarius growth on synthetic medium at the initial doses, cyprodinil seemed to be the active ingredient more effective at stopping fungal growth when testing reduced doses. The fungicide effect on grapes was similar to that on synthetic medium. Both infection and ochratoxin A production were reduced when using cyprodinil (37.5%) plus fludioxonil (25%) and azoxystrobin (25%). Penconazole (10%) also showed a clear reduction in ochratoxin A production at both temperatures, although infection was only reduced at 20 C. Ochratoxin A reduction was strain and temperature-dependent. In general, fenhexamid (50%), mancozeb (80%) and copper hydroxide (80%) plus copper (50%) enhanced infection and ochratoxin A production.
Is part ofFood additives and contaminants, 2006, vol. 23, núm. 10, p. 1021-1029
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