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dc.contributor.authorTorra Farré, Joel
dc.contributor.authorRojano-Delgado, Antonia M.
dc.contributor.authorRey Caballero, Jordi
dc.contributor.authorRoyo-Esnal, Aritz
dc.contributor.authorSalas, Maria L.
dc.contributor.authorPrado, Rafael de
dc.description.abstractCorn poppy (Papaver rhoeas), the most problematic broadleaf weed in winter cereals in Southern Europe, has developed resistance to the widely-used herbicide, 2,4-D. The first reported resistance mechanism in this species to 2,4-D was reduced translocation from treated leaves to the rest of the plant. However, the presence of other non-target site resistance (NTSR) mechanisms has not been investigated up to date. Therefore, the main objective of this research was to reveal if enhanced 2,4-D metabolism is also present in two Spanish resistant (R) populations to synthetic auxins. With this aim, HPLC experiments at two 2,4-D rates (600 and 2,400 g ai ha−1) were conducted to identify and quantify the metabolites produced and evaluate possible differences in 2,4-D degradation between resistant (R) and susceptible (S) plants. Secondarily, to determine the role of cytochrome P450 in the resistance response, dose-response experiments were performed using malathion as its inhibitor. Three populations were used: S, only 2,4-D R (R-703) and multiple R to 2,4-D and ALS inhibitors (R-213). HPLC studies indicated the presence of two hydroxy metabolites in these R populations in shoots and roots, which were not detected in S plants, at both rates. Therefore, enhanced metabolism becomes a new NTSR mechanism in these two P. rhoeas populations from Spain. Results from the dose-response experiments also showed that pre-treatment of R plants with the cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitor malathion reversed the phenotype to 2,4-D from resistant to susceptible in both R populations. Therefore, it could be hypothesized that a malathion inhibited P450 is responsible of the formation of the hydroxy metabolites detected in the metabolism studies. This and previous research indicate that two resistant mechanisms to 2,4-D could be present in populations R-703 and R-213: reduced translocation and enhanced metabolism. Future experiments are required to confirm these hypotheses, understand the role of P450, and the relationship between both NTSR mechanisms. On this basis, selection pressure with synthetic auxins bears the risk of promoting the evolution enhanced metabolism in Papaver rhoeas.
dc.description.sponsorshipThe authors gratefully acknowledge Du Pont (C16006) for funding the experiments. They thank M. Tricas, J. Recasens, M. Casamitjana, B. Singla, and the students of El Carme high-school for their help in trials. Special thanks to the reviewers and editor for their suggestions to improve the manuscript.
dc.publisherFrontiers Media
dc.relation.isformatofReproducció del document publicat a:
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers In Plant Science, 2017, vol. 8, article 1584, p. 1-11
dc.rightscc-by (c) Torra et al., 2017
dc.subjectPlant detoxification process
dc.subjectSynthetic auxin
dc.titleEnhanced 2,4-D metabolism in two resistant papaver rhoeas populations from Spain

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cc-by (c) Torra  et al., 2017
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