Target-site and non-target-site resistance mechanisms to ALS inhibiting herbicides in Papaver rhoeas
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Target-site and non-target-site resistance mechanisms to ALS inhibitors were investigated in multiple resistant (tribenuron-methyl and 2,4-D) and only 2,4-D resistant, Spanish corn poppy populations. Six amino-acid replacements at the Pro197 position (Ala197, Arg197, His197, Leu197, Thr197 and Ser197) were found in three multiple resistant populations. These replacements were responsible for the high tribenuron-methyl resistance response, and some of them, especially Thr197 and Ser197, elucidated the cross-resistant pattern for imazamox and florasulam, respectively. Mutations outside of the conserved regions of the ALS gene (Gly427 and Leu648) were identified, but not related to resistance response. Higher mobility of labeled tribenuron-methyl in plants with multiple resistance was, however, similar to plants with only 2,4-D resistance, indicating the presence of non-target-site resistance mechanisms (NTSR). Metabolism studies confirmed the presence of a hydroxy imazamox metabolite in one of the populations. Lack of correlation between phenotype and genotype in plants treated with florasulam or imazamox, non-mutated plants surviving imazamox, tribenuron-methyl translocation patterns and the presence of enhanced metabolism revealed signs of the presence of NTSR mechanisms to ALS inhibitors in this species. On this basis, selection pressure with ALS non-SU inhibitors bears the risk of promoting the evolution of NTSR mechanisms in corn poppy.