Carotenoid intake and SCD genotype exert complementary effects over fat content and fatty acid composition in Duroc pigs
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Nutritional and genetic strategies are needed to enhance intramuscular fat (IMF) and MUFA content without altering carcass leanness. Dietary vitamin A restriction has been suggested to specifically promote IMF, whereas a polymorphism of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene has shown to specifically increase MUFA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of provitamin A (PVA) carotenoid intake and SCD genotype (AY487830:g.2228T>C) on hepatic retinoid content and on the liver, muscle (LM and gluteus medius [GM]), and subcutaneous fat (SF) content and fatty acid composition. Following a split-plot design, 32 castrated Duroc pigs, half of each of the 2 homozygous SCD genotypes (CC and TT), were subjected from 165 to 195 d of age to 2 finishing diets differing in the PVA carotenoid content (an enriched-carotene diet [C+] and a control diet [C-]). Both diets were identical except for the corn line used in the feed. The C+ was formulated with 20% of a carotenoid-fortified corn (M37W-Ph3) whereas the C- instead used 20% of its near isogenic M37W line, which did not contain PVA carotenoids. No vitamin A was added to the diets. The C- was estimated to provide, at most, 1,300 IU of vitamin A/kg and the C+ to supply an extra amount of at least 800 IU vitamin A/kg. Compared with the pigs fed the C-, pigs fed with C+ had 3-fold more retinoic acid (P < 0.01) and 4-fold more SCD gene expression in the liver (P = 0.06). The diet did not affect performance traits and backfat thickness, but pigs fed the C+ had less fat (4.0 vs. 5.0%; P = 0.07) and MUFA (18.3 vs. 22.5%; P = 0.01) in the liver, less IMF (5.4 vs. 8.3%; P = 0.04) in the GM, and more fat content (90.4 vs. 87.9%; P = 0.09) and MUFA (48.0 vs. 46.6%; P = 0.04) in SF. The TT genotype at the SCD gene increased MUFA (P < 0.05) in all tissues (21.4 vs. 19.5% in the liver, 55.0 vs. 53.1% in the LM, 53.9 vs. 51.7% in the GM, and 48.0 vs. 46.7% in SF for TT and CC genotypes, respectively). Liver fat and MUFA content nonlinearly declined with liver all-trans retinoic acid, indicating a saturation point at relatively low all-trans retinoic acid content. The results obtained provide evidence for a complementary role between dietary PVA and SCD genotype, in the sense that the TT pigs fed with a low-PVA diet are expected to show higher and more monounsaturated IMF without increasing total fat content.
Is part ofJournal of Animal Science, 2017, vol. 95, núm. 6, p. 2547-2557
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