Antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen can be enhanced by chemical modifications in their structure
Bouillon, Marc E.
Newbold, C. Jamie
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The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to the sapogenin by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We postulated that the substitution of the sugar moiety of the saponin with small polar residues would produce sapogen-like analogs which might be resistant to degradation in the rumen as they would not be enzymatically cleaved, allowing the antiprotozoal effect to persist over time. In this study, we used an acute assay based on the ability of protozoa to break down [14C] leucine-labeled Streptococcus bovis and a longer term assay based on protozoal motility over 24 h to evaluate both the antiprotozoal effect and the stability of this effect with fifteen hederagenin bis-esters esterified with two identical groups, and five cholesterol and cholic acid based derivatives carrying one to three succinate residues. The acute antiprotozoal effect of hederagenin derivatives was more pronounced than that of cholesterol and cholic acid derivatives. Modifications in the structure of hederagenin, cholesterol, and cholic acid derivatives resulted in compounds with different biological activities in terms of acute effect and stability, although those which were highly toxic to protozoa were not always the most stable over time. Most of the hederagenin bis-esters, and in particular hederagenin bis-succinate (TSB24), hederagenin bis-betainate dichloride (TSB37) and hederagenin bis-adipate (TSB47) had a persistent effect against rumen protozoa in vitro, shifting the fermentation pattern toward higher propionate and lower butyrate. These chemically modified triterpenes could potentially be used in ruminant diets as an effective defaunation agent to, ultimately, increase nitrogen utilization, decrease methane emissions, and enhance animal production. Further trials in vivo or in long term rumen simulators are now needed to confirm the in vitro observations presented.
Is part ofFrontiers in Microbiology, 2017, vol. 8, num. 399, p. 1-13
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Improving the antiprotozoal effect of saponins in the rumen by combination with glycosidase inhibiting iminosugars or by modification of their chemical structure Ramos-Morales, Eva; de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Nash, Robert J.; Braganca, Radek; Duval, Stéphane; Bouillon, Marc E.; Lahmann, Martina; Newbold, C. Jamie (Public Library of Science, 2017)The antiprotozoal effect of saponins is transitory, as when saponins are deglycosylated to sapogenins by rumen microorganisms they become inactive. We hypothesised that the combination of saponins with glycosidase-inhibiting ...
Newbold, C. Jamie; de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Belanche, A.; Ramos-Morales, Eva; McEwan, Neil (Frontiers, 2015-11-09)First described in 1843, Rumen protozoa with their striking appearance were assumed to be important for the welfare of their host. However, despite contributing up to 50% of the bio-mass in the rumen, the role of protozoa ...
Ramos-Morales, Eva; Lyons, Laura; de la Fuente Oliver, Gabriel; Braganca, Radek; Newbold, C. Jamie (Oxford University Press, 2019-07-04)The antiprotozoal effect of saponins varies according to both the structure of the sapogenin and the composition and linkage of the sugar moieties to the sapogenin. The effect of saponins on protozoa has been considered ...