- ItemOpen AccessNeuregulin 1-ErbB module in C-bouton synapses on somatic motor neurons: molecular compartmentation and response to peripheral nerve injury(Nature, 2017) Casanovas i Llorens, Anna; Salvany, Sara; Lahoz, Víctor; Tarabal Mostazo, Olga; Piedrafita Llorens, Lídia; Sabater, Raimundo; Hernández i Estanyol, Sara; Calderó i Pardo, Jordi; Esquerda Colell, JosepThe electric activity of lower motor neurons (MNs) appears to play a role in determining cell-vulnerability in MN diseases. MN excitability is modulated by cholinergic inputs through C-type synaptic boutons, which display an endoplasmic reticulum-related subsurface cistern (SSC) adjacent to the postsynaptic membrane. Besides cholinergic molecules, a constellation of proteins involved in different signal-transduction pathways are clustered at C-type synaptic sites (M2 muscarinic receptors, Kv2.1 potassium channels, Ca2+ activated K+ [SK] channels, and sigma-1 receptors [S1R]), but their collective functional significance so far remains unknown. We have previously suggested that neuregulin-1 (NRG1)/ErbBs-based retrograde signalling occurs at this synapse. To better understand signalling through C-boutons, we performed an analysis of the distribution of C-bouton-associated signalling proteins. We show that within SSC, S1R, Kv2.1 and NRG1 are clustered in highly specific, non-overlapping, microdomains, whereas ErbB2 and ErbB4 are present in the adjacent presynaptic compartment. This organization may define highly ordered and spatially restricted sites for different signal-transduction pathways. SSC associated proteins are disrupted in axotomised MNs together with the activation of microglia, which display a positive chemotactism to C-bouton sites. This indicates that C-bouton associated molecules are also involved in neuroinflammatory signalling in diseased MNs, emerging as new potential therapeutic targets.
- ItemRestrictedAn early and robust activation of caspases heads cells for a regulated form of necrotic-like cell death(American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2015) Garcia-Belinchón, Mercè; Sánchez Osuna, María; Martínez Escardó, Laura; Granados-Colomina, Carla; Pascual-Guiral, Sònia; Iglesias-Guimarais, Victoria; Casanelles, Elisenda; Ribas i Fortuny, Judit; Yuste Mateos, Víctor J. (Víctor José)Apoptosis is triggered by the activation of caspases and characterized by chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation (type II nuclear morphology). Necrosis is depicted by a gain in cell volume (oncosis), swelling of organelles, plasma membrane leakage, and subsequent loss of intracellular contents. Although considered as different cell death entities, there is an overlap between apoptosis and necrosis. In this sense, mounting evidence suggests that both processes can be morphological expressions of a common biochemical network known as “apoptosis- necrosis continuum.” To gain insight into the events driving the apoptosis-necrosis continuum, apoptotically proficient cells were screened facing several apoptotic inducers for the absence of type II apoptotic nuclear morphologies. Chelerythrine was selected for further studies based on its cytotoxicity and the lack of apoptotic nuclear alterations. Chelerythrine triggered an early plasma membrane leakage without condensed chromatin aggregates. Ultrastructural analysis revealed that chelerythrine-mediated cytotoxicity was compatible with a necrotic-like type of cell death. Biochemically, chelerythrine induced the activation of caspases. Moreover, the inhibition of caspases prevented chelerythrine-triggered necrotic-like cell death. Compared with staurosporine, chelerythrine induced stronger caspase activation detectable at earlier times. After using a battery of chemicals, we found that high concentrations of thiolic antioxidants fully prevented chelerythrine-driven caspase activation and necrotic-like cell death. Lower amounts of thiolic antioxidants partially prevented chelerythrine-mediated cytotoxicity and allowed cells to display type II apoptotic nuclear morphology correlating with a delay in caspase-3 activation. Altogether, these data support that an early and pronounced activation of caspases can drive cells to undergo a form of necrotic-like regulated cell death.
- ItemRestrictedAdverse effects of a SOD1-peptide immunotherapy on SOD1(G93A) mouse slow model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosi(Elsevier, 2015-12-01) Sábado, J.; Casanovas i Llorens, Anna; Rodrigo, H.; Arque, Gloria; Esquerda Colell, JosepPrevious reports from our lab had shown that some anti-purinergic receptor P2X4 antibodies cross-reacted with misfolded forms of mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Cross-reactivity could be caused by the abnormal exposure of an epitope located in the inner hydrophobic region of SOD1 that shared structural homology with the P2X4-immunizing peptide. We had previously raised antibodies against human SOD1 epitope mimicked by the P2X4 immunizing peptide. One of these antibodies, called AJ10, was able to recognize mutant/misfolded forms of ALS-linked mutant SOD1. Here, we used the AJ10 antigen as a vaccine to target neurotoxic species of mutant SOD1 in a slow mouse model of ALS. However, the obtained results showed no improvement in life span, disease onset or weight loss in treated animals; we observed an increased microglial neuroinflammatory response and high amounts of misfolded SOD1 accumulated within spinal cord neurons after AJ10 immunization. An increase of immunoglobulin G deposits was also found due to the treatment. Finally, a significantly worse clinical evolution was displayed by an impairment on motor function as a consequence of AJ10 peptide immunization
- ItemOpen AccessCaspase-independent type III programmed cell death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: the key role of the F-actin cytoskeleton(Ferrata Storti Foundation, 2009) Barbier, Sardine; Chatre, Laurent; Bras, Marlène; Sancho, Patricia; Roué, Gaël; Virely, Clémence; Yuste Mateos, Víctor J. (Víctor José); Baudet, Sylvie; Rubio, Manuel; Esquerda Colell, Josep; Sarfati, Marika; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Susin, Santos A.Background Programmed cell death has been traditionally related with caspase activation. However, it is now accepted that caspase-independent forms of programmed cell death also regulate cell death. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, CD47 ligation induces one of these alternative forms of cell death: type III programmed cell death. This poorly understood process is characterized by cytoplasmic hallmarks, such as mitochondrial damage. To gain insights into the molecular pathways regulating type III programmed cell death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, we performed extensive biochemical and cell biology assessments. Design and Methods After CD47 triggering, purified B-cells from 20 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia were studied by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and three-dimensional imaging, immunoblotting, electron microscopy, and fibrillar/globular actin measurements. Finally, we subjected CD47-treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to a phagocytosis assay. Results We first confirmed that induction of type III programmed cell death is an efficient means of triggering cell death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Further, we demonstrated that the signaling events induced by CD47 ligation provoked a reduction in cell size. This alteration is related to F-actin disruption, as the two other cytoskeleton networks, microtubules and intermediate filaments, remain undisturbed in type III programmed cell death. Strikingly, we revealed that the pharmacological modulation of F-actin dynamics regulated this type of death. Finally, our data delineated a new programmed cell death pathway in chronic lymphocytic leukemia initiated by CD47 triggering, and followed by serine protease activation, F-actin rearrangement, mitochondrial damage, phosphatidylserine exposure, and cell clearance. Conclusions Our work reveals a key molecular tool in the modulation of cell death in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: F-actin. By assessing the regulation of F-actin and type III programmed cell death, this analysis provides new options for destroying chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, such as a combination of therapies based on apoptosis regulators (e.g., caspases, Bcl- 2, Bax) along with alternative therapies based on type III death effectors (e.g., F-actin).
- ItemOpen AccessAutophagy exacerbates caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death after short times of starvation(Elsevier, 2015-12) Mattiolo, Paolo; Yuste Mateos, Víctor J. (Víctor José); Boix Torras, Jacint; Ribas i Fortuny, JuditAutophagy is generally regarded as a mechanism to promote cell survival. However, autophagy can occasionally be the mechanism responsible of cell demise. We have found that a concomitant depletion of glucose, nutrients and growth factors provoked cell death in a variety of cell lines. This death process was contingent upon caspase activation and was mediated by BAX/BAK proteins, thus indicating its apoptotic nature and the engagement of an intrinsic pathway. In order to abrogate autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), BECLIN-1 siRNA and Atg5 knock-out (Tet-Off type) approaches were alternatively employed. Irrespective of the procedure, at short times of starvation, we found that the ongoing autophagy was sensitizing cells to the permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOMP), caspase activation and, therefore, apoptosis. On the contrary, at longer times of starvation, autophagy displayed its characteristic pro-survival effect on cells. As far as we know, we provide the first experimental paradigm where time is the only variable determining the final outcome of autophagy. In other words, we have circumscribed in time the shift transforming autophagy from a cell death to a protection mechanism. Moreover, at short times, starvation-driven autophagy exacerbated the apoptotic cell death caused by several antitumor agents. In agreement with this fact, their apoptotic effects were greatly diminished by autophagy inhibition. The implications of these facts in tumor biology will be discussed.